York-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Old English

Part-of-Speech Labels

As in the PPCME2, the internal structure of constituents in the YCOE is indicated down to the word level (part of speech). The POS tags are included in the parsed files as the first set of labelled parens surrounding a word.

The verb BE

BE infinitive
BEI imperative
BEPH ambiguous, subjunctive/imperative form
BEPI present tense, unambiguous indicative
BEPS present tense, unambiguous subjunctive
BEP present tense, ambiguous form
BEDI past tense, unambiguous indicative
BEDS past tense, unambiguous subjunctive
BED past tense, ambiguous form
BAG present participle
BEN past participle

The verb HAVE

HV infinitive
HVI imperative
HVPI present tense, unambiguous indicative
HVPS present tense, unambiguous subjunctive
HVP present tense, ambiguous form
HVDI past tense, unambiguous indicative
HVDS past tense, unambiguous subjunctive
HVD past tense, ambiguous form
HAG present participle
HVN past participle (verbal or adjectival)

Auxiliary verbs

AX infinitive
AXI imperative
AXPI present tense, unambiguous indicative
AXPS present tense, unambiguous subjunctive
AXP present tense, ambiguous form
AXDI past tense, unambiguous indicative
AXDS past tense, unambiguous subjunctive
AXD past tense, ambiguous form
AXG present participle
AXN past participle (verbal or adjectival)

All other verbs

VB infinitive
VBI imperative
VBPH ambiguous, subjunctive/imperative form
VBPI present tense, unambiguous indicative
VBPS present tense, unambiguous subjunctive
VBP present tense, ambiguous form
VBDI past tense, unambiguous indicative
VBDS past tense, unambiguous subjunctive
VBD past tense, ambiguous form
VAG present participle
VBN past participle (verbal or adjectival)

Modal verbs

MD infinitive
MDI imperative
MDPI present tense, unambiguous indicative
MDPS present tense, unambiguous subjunctive
MDP present tense, ambiguous form
MDDI past tense, unambiguous indicative
MDDS past tense, unambiguous subjunctive
MDD past tense, ambiguous form
TO infinitival TO


N Common noun, singular or plural
NPR Proper noun, singular or plural
PRO Personal pronoun
PRO$ Possessive pronoun

Adjectives and Adverbs

ADJ Adjective
ADV Adverb

Quantifiers and numerals

Q Quantifier
NUM Numeral


WPRO Wh-pronoun
WADJ Wh-adjective
WADV Wh-adverb


CONJ Coordinating conjunction
C Complementizer
D Determiner
P Preposition or subordinating conjunction
NEG Negation
RP Adverbial particle
FP Focus particle
FW Foreign word
INTJ Interjection
XX unknown or problematic word

Extended tags

N nominative case
A accusitive case
G genitive case
D dative case
I instrumental case
T temporal
L locative
D directional (contextual)
DX directional (lexical)


. Final punctuation (end of token) in POS files
, Non-final punctuation
" Double quotation marks
' Single quotation marks

Non-linguistic tags

CODE Indicates non-text material
ID Token identifier