Paper 1

Local-orbital analysis of the oxygen–nickel (001) bond from self-consistent electronic structure

R. W. Godby, G. A. Benesh, R. Haydock and V. Heine

Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK

Physical Review B 32 655 (1985)

We have calculated self-consistently the electronic structure of a model of a c(2×2) oxygen overlayer on the nickel (001) surface using the linearized augmented-plane-wave method, obtaining good agreement with the experimentally measured electronic excitation spectra. Our purpose has been to analyze the charge density, wave functions, bond orders, local densities of states, and energy levels to obtain a picture of the bonding between the oxygen and the nickel surface. We find that the oxygen 2p states hybridize more strongly with the nickel 4s4p bands than with the 3d bands, and we demonstrate that the optimal local orbitals for the oxygen nucleus which span the resulting 2p-like bands centered at EF-5.5 eV resemble large oxygen 2p orbitals. Bond orders exhibit the bonding nature of these states and the existence of antibonding states above EF.

PACS Numbers: 68.20.+t, 73.20.Hb, 73.30.+y, 68.30.+z

Keywords: DFT

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Paper 2

Charge-transfer effects in oxygen chemisorption on nickel (001)

R. W. Godby

Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK

Physical Review B 32 5432 (1985)

Calculations of the electron density in oxygen overlayers on a nickel (001) surface show a ‘‘ball-and-stick’’ model to be inappropriate in understanding the small work-function increase measured on chemisorption. The form of the charge transfer and the effective surface dipole layer is explained in terms of the very large 2p-like oxygen orbitals that span the O 2p–like bands.

PACS Numbers: 73.30.+y, 73.20.Hb

Keywords: DFT

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Paper 3

Local-orbital analysis of oxygen-oxygen interaction on nickel (001) from self-consistent electronic structure

R. W. Godby

Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK

Physical Review B 32 7641 (1985)

From calculations of the electronic structure of c(2×2) and p(1×1) overlayers of oxygen atoms on the nickel (001) surface, we demonstrate the closed-shell nature of the oxygen-oxygen repulsion that prevents the formation of the p(1×1) structure. The closed shells consist of the large oxygen p orbitals that span the oxygen 2p-like bands. The widths of these bands and the changes in the density of states upon chemisorption show quantitatively that this effectively direct adsorbate-adsorbate interaction is dominant.

PACS Numbers: 68.20.+t, 73.20.-r

Keywords: DFT

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Paper 4

Breakdown of atomic superposition for the helium scattering potential of oxygen on nickel (001)

R.W. Godby1 and N. Garcia2

1AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ 07974, USA
2
IBM Zurich Research Laboratory, 8803 Rüschlikon, Switzerland

Surf. Sci. 163 L681 (1985) (Letters)

Self-consistent calculations of the charge density of the c(2×2) phase of oxygen on nickel (001) (i) give a helium scattering potential which in excellent agreement with the shape, height and width of that obtained by Rieder by fitting his atom-surface scattering data: (ii) justify the use of a hard-wall fit because of a 4.2 Å−1 average softness parameter; and (iii) rule out superposition of atomic or ionic charge densities for this and similar systems.

Keywords: DFT

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Paper 5

Accurate Exchange-Correlation Potential for Silicon and its Discontinuity on Addition of an Electron

R.W. Godby1, M. Schlüter1 and L.J. Sham2

1 AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ 07974
2 Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093

Physical Review Letters 56 2415 (1986)

We obtain an accurate density-functional exchange-correlation potential, Vxc (r), for silicon, from calculations of the self-energy Σ(r,r',ω). No local-density approximation (LDA) is used for Vxc. The band structure with this Vxc is in remarkably close agreement with that obtained with the LDA, while both differ significantly from the quasiparticle spectrum of Σ. The 50% band-gap error found in LDA calculations is therefore not caused by the LDA but by the discontinuity, Δ, in the exact Vxc on addition of an electron.

PACS Numbers: 71.45.Gm, 71.25.Rk

Keywords: GW DFT

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Paper 6

Accurate exchange-correlation potentials for semiconductors and their connections with the quasiparticle energies

R.W. Godby1, M. Schlüter1 and L.J. Sham2

1 AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ 07974
2 Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093

Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors (Stockholm, 1986), World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, 1987

We obtain accurate density-functional-theory exchange-correlation potentials, Vxc (r), and their gap-discontinuities Δ, for Si, GaAs and diamond by using an exact relationship between Vxc and the self-energy Σ(r,r',ω).  In each case about 80% of the LDA band-gap error is attributable to Δ and not to the LDA itself.  We also discuss the forms of Vxc and Σ in real space.

Keywords: GW DFT

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Paper 7

Quasiparticle energies in GaAs and AlAs

R.W. Godby1, M. Schlüter1 and L.J. Sham2

1 AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ 07974
2 Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093

Physical Review B Rapid Communications 35 4170 (1987)

We calculate the quasiparticle band structures of GaAs and AlAs and compare them with previous experimental assignments. Generally good agreement is obtained, except for the L conduction-band minimum in AlAs, which is found to be 0.8±0.2 eV above the X minimum rather than 0.3 eV as found in the literature. A new interpretation of the experimental data is therefore proposed.

Keywords: GW DFT

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Paper 8

Trends in self-energy operators and their corresponding exchange-correlation potentials

R.W. Godby1, M. Schlüter1 and L.J. Sham2

1 AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ 07974
2 Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093

Physical Review B 36 6497 (1987)

We examine the trends in the self-energy operators of Si, diamond, GaAs, and AlAs, and in their corresponding exchange-correlation potentials Vxc and their discontinuities Δ. The potentials are calculated from the self-energies, thus avoiding use of a local-density approximation (LDA). In each case about 80% of the LDA band-gap error is also present for the true density-functional theory eigenvalue difference derived from Vxc and so is caused by Δ. The self-energies themselves, calculated in the Hedin-Lundqvist GW approximation, reproduce the experimental quasiparticle energies accurately, and are also shown to be well modeled by a simple functional form in real space.

Keywords: GW DFT

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Paper 9

Self-Energy Operators and Exchange-Correlation Potentials in Semiconductors

R.W. Godby1, M. Schlüter2 and L.J. Sham3

1 AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ 07974 and Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0HE, United Kingdom
2 AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ 07974
3 Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093

Physical Review B 37 10159 (1988)

We show how the density-functional (DFT) exchange-correlation potential Vxc (r) of a semiconductor is calculated from the self-energy operator Σ(r,r',ω), and how Σ is obtained using the one-particle Green's function and the screened Coulomb interaction (the GW approximation). We discuss the nature of Vxc and the self-energy in real space, and investigate features and trends found in Si, GaAs, AlAs and diamond. In each case the calculated quasiparticle band structure is in good agreement with experiment, while the DFT band structure is surprisingly similar to that with the common local-density approximation (LDA); in particular, about 80% of the severe LDA band-gap error is shown to be inherent in DFT calculations, being accounted for by the discontinuity Δ in Vxc on addition of an electron. The relationship of the calculated Vxcto the LDA and its extensions is also examined.

PACS Numbers: 71.45.Gm, 71.25.Rk

Keywords: GW DFT

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Paper 10

Metal-Insulator Transition in Kohn-Sham Theory and Quasiparticle Theory

R.W. Godby and R.J. Needs

Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0HE, United Kingdom

Physical Review Letters 62 1169 (1989)

We investigate the pressure-induced metal-insulator transition of silicon in the diamond structure. Quasiparticle theory (QPT) calculations are performed within the GW approximation, and Kohn-Sham theory (KST) results are obtained by using an exchange-correlation potential derived from the GW self-energy operator, not using the common local-density approximation (LDA). In both KST and the LDA metallization occurs at a much larger volume than in QPT. These results suggest that the metallization point and Fermi surface of the Kohn-Sham electrons are not necessarily those of the real system.

PACS Numbers: 71.30.+h, 71.25.Rk, 71.45.Gm

Keywords: GW DFT

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Paper 11

Exchange-Correlation Potentials in Schottky Barriers and Heterojunctions

R.W. Godby1, L.J. Sham1 and M. Schlüter2

1 Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093
2 AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ 07974

Physical Review Letters 65 2083 (1988)

Commenting on a recent paper by Das et al., we show how the discontinuity Δ in the exchange-correlation potential on addition of an electron will, in general, cause the p- and n-type Schottky barrier heights at a metal-semiconductor interface (and the band offsets at a semiconductor heterojunction) to be different in exact Kohn-Sham density-functional theory from the correct quasiparticle values. The error is accommodated by a long-distance variation in the exchange-correlation potential which accompanies the variation in the electrostatic potential.

PACS Numbers: 73.20.At, 73.40.Ns

Keywords: GW DFT

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Paper 12

Band structures for excited state spectroscopies

R.W. Godby and R.J. Needs

Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0HE, United Kingdom

Physica Scripta T31 227 (1990)

By calculating an exchange-correlation potential from the self-energy operator, we show that interpretation of the one-electron band structure appearing in density-functional theory (DFT) calculations as quasiparticle energies is seriously invalid. For example, the well-known error in the minimum band gap of semiconductors and insulators is not caused by the use of the local density approximation (LDA), but is inherent to DFT. Furthermore, the metal-insulator transition undergone when a semiconductor is compressed is not described correctly within DFT, showing that the DFT Fermi surface is not necessarily that of the real system. However, excited state properties can be calculated correctly, by using computational many-body theory. The GW approximation for the self-energy operator gives quasiparticle energies in excellent agreement with experiment. It may also be used to obtain the one-particle Green's function, from which other properties of the system may be found.

Keywords: GW DFT

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Paper 13

Materials under the mathematical microscope

R.W. Godby, R.J. Needs and M.C. Payne

Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0HE, United Kingdom

Physics World, October 1990, p.39

Imagine a physics laboratory in which it is possible to examine the smallest details of a solid, seeing not just the positions of atoms but also the electron density and even the individual electronic wavefunctions; to apply pressures to solids hundreds of times greater than previously possible; to measure forces on individual atoms; and even to hold selected atoms in place while moving others to investigate the interatomic forces which determine the structure of the solid. In fact, starting only from the elements of quantum mechanics, supercomputers allow powerful experiments to be performed on solids in just such an imaginary ‘laboratory’. Here atoms may be manipulated at will, and the behaviour of their electrons, which governs the electronic and optical properties of the solid and the forces which hold it together, measured in great detail. The insights gained can then be used to build a new understanding of physical processes.

Keywords: GW DFT

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Paper 14

Tailoring materials for quantum wells: band offsets at (001)-oriented GaAs/(AlAs)n(GaAs)m interfaces

K. Karlsson1, R.J. Needs2, A. Qteish2 and R.W. Godby2

1Dept. of Physics, Chalmers University of Technoligy, Goteborg, Sweden
2
Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0HE, United Kingdom

J. Phys. Cond. Matt. (Letters) 2 5265 (1990)

The electronic structure at the interface between bulk GaAs(001) and short-period superlattices of (AlAs)n(GaAs)m has been calculated using ab initio pseudopotential techniques. The results show that the valence band offsets at such interfaces are very similar to those obtained experimentally for random alloy systems, but superior transport properties are anticipated for the ordered systems.

Keywords: DFT

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Paper 15

A many-body approach to the calculation of the ground-state total energy of semiconductors

B. Farid, R.W. Godby and R.J. Needs

Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0HE, United Kingdom

Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors (Thessaloniki, 1990), World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, 1990

We outline our strategy to tackle the problem of total-energy calculations for real semiconductors and insulators including many-body effects. In our treatment we use the total-energy expression of Galitskii and Migdal within the framework of Hedin’s GW approximation for the self-energy operator. While numerical evaluation of this expression for real materials might seem impracticable, we show how it can simply be transformed into a form whose elements can be evaluated. We also presents some computational results for bulk silicon.

Keywords: GW DFT

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Paper 16

Electron correlation in electronic structure calculations

J.P.A. Charlesworth, A. Oschlies, R.W. Godby, R.J. Needs and L.J. Sham

Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors (Thessaloniki, 1990), World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, 1990

Progress with treating many-body effects in solids using the GW formulation of the self-energy operator is illustrated using three examples: (i) Many-body effects in a Al/GaAs Schottky barrier; (ii) Band-gap narrowing in doped semiconductors; (iii) Many-body effects in the momentum densities of semiconductors.

Keywords: GW DFT

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Paper 17

Cohesive energies of crystals

B. Farid and R.W. Godby

Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0HE, United Kingdom

Physical Review B 43 14248 (1991)

We comment on the controversies that seem to exist about the experimental value of the cohesive energy for silicon. We argue that this can be safely taken to be 4.62±0.08 eV/atom. We conclude that, whereas in the case of diamond the cohesive energy predicted by recent variational quantum Monte Carlo pseudopotential calculation is in excellent agreement with experiment, for silicon there remains a discrepancy of 0.19 eV/atom. To clarify these points, we mention briefly some fundamental principles of the measurement of cohesive energies and explain how they can be obtained from the thermodynamic tables.

Keywords: DFT

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Paper 18

Exchange and correlation in solids

R.W. Godby

Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0HE, United Kingdom

Chapter in "Unoccupied electronic states" (Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 69), ed. J.E. Inglesfield and J. Fuggle, Springer, 1992

In this chapter theories of the effects of the electron-electron interaction on optical and electronic properties of solids are described, with particular focus on the new first-principles approaches to many-body phenomena.

Keywords: GW DFT

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Paper 19

First-principles self-energy calculations of carrier-induced band gap narrowing in silicon

A. Oschlies, R.W. Godby and R.J. Needs

Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0HE, United Kingdom

Physical Review B Rapid Communications 45 13741 (1992)

We calculate the band-gap narrowing in silicon caused by the introduction of additional electrons, using a first-principles self-energy approach within the GW approximation. We include full local-field effects and the nonlocal and energy-dependent dielectric function of the intrinsic material. We also analyze our calculations to test the approximations normally used in simple models of this effect: local-field effects are found to be unimportant, but the inclusion of the energy dependence of the dielectric response of the intrinsic material, which is normally neglected in model calculations, is found to be crucial at high carrier concentrations.

Keywords: GW DFT

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Paper 20

Investigating Exact Density-Functional Theory of a Model Semiconductor

W. Knorr and R.W. Godby

Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0HE, United Kingdom

Physical Review Letters 68 639 (1992)

Using the Diffusion Quantum Monte Carlo method, we calculate the ground-state density and energy, and the quasiparticle band gap, of a model semiconductor. The exchange-correlation potential of density-functional theory (DFT), Vxc (r), is obtained using optimisation techniques. From this we calculate the DFT functionals Exc and Ts and the DFT band gap for various external potentials and compare the results with the local-density approximation (LDA). Whereas energies are found to be very accurate in the LDA, and the density reasonably good, we find large differences in the shape of Vxc (r).

PACS Numbers: 71.10.+x, 71.45.Gm

Keywords: DFT

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Paper 21

Electronic excitation energies in Schottky barriers

J.P.A. Charlesworth, R.W. Godby, R.J. Needs and L.J. Sham

Materials Science and Engineering (B) 14 262 (1992)

We present the results of recent research on the electronic structure of Schottky barriers. This is in two parts: (i) ab initio calculations of the equilibrium geometry and electronic structure of a GaAs(110)-A1 Schottky barrier, and (ii) a discussion of the significance of Schottky barrier heights calculated in exact density functional theory

Keywords: GW DFT

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Paper 22

Electronic structure with self-energy corrections for gallium nitride

M. Palummo, L. Reining, R.W. Godby and C.M. Bertoni

Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors (Beijing, 1992)

We present the results of a density-functional calculation on gallium nitride in the zinc blende phase and compare band structure and ground-state properties with the results obtained for the wurtzite structure. The use of norm-conserving pseudopotentials requires a large plane-wave basis set (100 Ryd cutoff) for a converged calculation. In addition, we determine the self-energy corrections to the quasiparticle energies in the GW scheme. A comparison with other calculations and existing experimental data is also given.

Keywords: GW

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Paper 23

First-Principles Calculations of Many-Body Band-Gap Narrowing at an Al/GaAs(110) Interface

J.P.A. Charlesworth, R.W. Godby and R.J. Needs

Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0HE, United Kingdom

Physical Review Letters 70 1685 (1993)

We calculate the quasiparticle electronic structure of a Al/GaAs(110) Schottky barrier as a function of distance from the interface, using the GW self-energy operator. The GaAs band gap is significantly narrowed near the metal, although the classical picture of image-potential narrowing is subject to large quantum corrections. The nature of these corrections is explored further using model calculations.

PACS Numbers: 73.30.+y, 73.40.Ns, 71.10.+x

Keywords: GW

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Paper 24

Surface diffusion on a stepped surface

A. Natori and R.W. Godby

Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0HE, United Kingdom

Physical Review B 47 15816 (1993)

Surface diffusion of an adatom on a vicinal surface is investigated, using site-dependent hopping rates based on a model surface-potential profile of a regularly stepped surface. We solved analytically the coupled rate equations for the occupation probability of an adatom at a sufficiently long time, in analogy to the tight-binding theory of electronic structure. From this, the general relation between the hopping rates and the diffusion coefficient is derived. Formulas of both surface diffusion coefficients, parallel and perpendicular to a step edge direction, are obtained as functions of related atomic hopping rates at a terrace site, an upper edge site, and a lower edge site and of the step spacing. The fundamental mechanism determining the crucial role of step arrays on surface diffusion is clarified. No difference was found between step-up diffusion and step-down diffusion, even in the absence of inversion symmetry on the surface-potential profile. With Monte Carlo simulation, the effect of kink sites on surface diffusion is studied. Kinks greatly suppress the parallel diffusion coefficient, while they suppress only weakly the perpendicular diffusion coefficient.

PACS Numbers: 68.35.Fx

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Paper 25

First-principles study of the effects of interface structure on the Schottky barrier height of the GaAs(110)/Al interface

R.J. Needs, J.P.A. Charlesworth and R.W. Godby

Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0HE, United Kingdom

Europhysics Letters 25 31 (1994)

The relaxed atomic structures, energies, and Schottky barrier heights of six translation states of the Al-GaAs(110) interface are calculated using a first-principles pseudopotential technique. The Schottky barrier height varies by 0.7 eV depending on the translation state, even though the energies of the structures are very similar. The lowest-energy translation state, which has not been considered in any previous studies, is the only one which allows every interface atom to participate in bonding across the interface. For each of the unrelaxed interface structures the Fermi level is pinned very close to the local charge neutrality level.

PACS Numbers: 73.30.+y, 73.40.Ns, 71.10.-w

Keywords: GW DFT

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Paper 26

Exchange-Correlation Potentials at Semiconductor Interfaces

R.W. Godby1 and L.J. Sham2

1 Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0HE, United Kingdom
2 Dept. of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0319

Physical Review B 49 1849 (1994)

We investigate the exact Kohn-Sham exchange-correlation potential at semiconductor interfaces, including Schottky barriers, heterojunctions and semiconductor surfaces. By considering the electron density at the interface, we deduce the way in which the exact exchange-correlation potential differs from its bulk counterpart. The potential has a slow spatial variation related to the discontinuity, Δ, that occurs on addition of an electron to the bulk semiconductor. This variation, which corresponds to an ultra-non-local "vertex correction" in the Kohn-Sham formulation of the dielectric response of the semiconductor, results in correction terms for Schottky barrier heights and band offsets calculated using Kohn-Sham orbital energies. The effect is exhibited numerically for a model semiconductor.

PACS Numbers: 73.20.At, 73.40.Ns, 71.45.Gm

Keywords: GW DFT

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Paper 27

GWΓ Approximation for Electron Self-Energies in Semiconductors and Insulators

R. Del Sole1, Lucia Reining2 and R.W. Godby3

1 Departimento di Fisica, Università di Roma "Tor Vergata", Viale della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00173 Roma, Italy
2 Laboratoire des Solides Irradiés, CRA-CEREM-CNRS URA No. 1380, École Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau, France
3 Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0HE, U.K.

Physical Review B 49 8024 (1994)

The widely used GW approximation for the self-energy of a system of interacting electron may, in principle, be improved using an approximate vertex correction Γ. We estimate Γ using the local-density approximation. We report the results of a comparable series of GW calculations for the band structure of silicon, in which such a vertex correction is (i) excluded entirely, (ii) included only in the screened Coulomb interaction W, and (iii) included in both W and the expression for the self-energy. We also discuss the symmetry properties of the exact vertex correction and how they may be retained in further improvements.

Keywords: GW

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Paper 28

Ab Initio Calculations of the Dynamic Response of Beryllium

N.E. Maddocks, R.W. Godby and R.J. Needs

Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0HE, United Kingdom

Physical Review B (Rapid Communications) 49 8502 (1994)

We present results from ab initio calculations of the full inverse dielectric matrix of beryllium, from which we obtain the dynamic scattering cross section. This is shown to be in excellent agreement with recent inelastic X-ray scattering experiments, both in overall shape and in precise details of the fine structure. As the calculations have been performed entirely within the random-phase approximation, this presents conclusive evidence that band-structure effects are responsible for the observed structure.

Keywords: GW DFT

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Paper 29

Electronic Structure of Cubic GaN with Self-Energy Corrections

M. Palummo1, L. Reining2, R.W. Godby3, C.M. Bertoni1 and N. Börnsen2

1 Departimento di Fisica, Università di Roma "Tor Vergata", Viale della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00173 Roma, Italy
2 Laboratoire des Solides Irradiés, CRA-CEREM-CNRS URA No. 1380, École Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau, France
3 Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0HE, U.K.

Europhysics Letters 26 607 (1994)

We present the result of a calculation for the bulk electronic structure of gallium nitride in the zincblende phase. We determine the equilibrium lattice constant, the cohesive energy and the bulk modulus in the Density Functional approach within the Local Density Approximation (DFT-LDA). The one-particle eigenvalues of the DFT Kohn-Sham equation do in principle not agree with the experimental band structure. Therefore, we calculate the quasiparticle energies by including self-energy corrections to the DFT-LDA exchange-correlation potential, with the GW approximation for the electron self-energy. We use norm-conserving pseudopotentials and a large plane-wave basis set (100 Ry cut-off) for a converged calculation in the DFT-LDA. The LDA band gap turns out to be very sensitive to the crystal volume. We find that GW corrections to the LDA band gap are significant. A detailed comparison with other DFT-LDA results and approximate GW calculations and with existing experimental data is given.

PACS Numbers: 71.25T

Keywords: GW DFT

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Paper 30

A Quantum Monte Carlo Study of Density-Functional Theory for a Semiconducting Wire

W. Knorr and R.W. Godby

Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0HE, United Kingdom

Physical Review B 50 1779 (1994)

We use Diffusion Quantum Monte Carlo (DQMC) techniques to obtain accurate estimates of the components of the Kohn-Sham effective potential of density-functional theory (DFT) for a model semiconductor, and the corresponding components of the energy functional, by determining the local potential which, when filled with non-interacting electrons, reproduces the DQMC electron density. The results are compared with the widely-used local-density approximation (LDA). There is a large deviation in the exchange-correlation potential, a slight deviation in the electron density, but a very small deviation in the total energy and its components. We also use DQMC techniques to calculate the quasiparticle band gap, and hence the discontinuity Δ in the exchange-correlation potential on addition of an electron.

PACS Numbers: 71.10.+x, 71.45.Gm

Keywords: DFT

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