John A. Clark, Jeremy L. Jacob, Susan Stepney.
The design of S-boxes by simulated annealing.

New Generation Computing . 23(3):219-231 May 2005


Substitution boxes are important components in many modern day block and stream ciphers. Their study has attracted a great deal of attention over many years. The development of a variety of cryptosystem attacks over the years has lead to the development of criteria for resilience to such attacks. Some general criteria such as high non-linearity and low autocorrelation have been proposed as useful criteria (providing some protection against attacks such as linear cryptanalysis and differential cryptanalysis). There has been little application of evolutionary search to the development of S-boxes. In this paper we show how a cost function that has found excellent single output Boolean functions can be generalised to provide improved results for small S-boxes.

  author = "John A. Clark and Jeremy L. Jacob and Susan Stepney",
  title = "The design of {S}-boxes by simulated annealing",
  journal = "New Generation  Computing",
  volume = 23,
  number = 3,
  pages = "219--231",
  month = may,
  year = 2005 )