Question 2: What statistical method should be used to calculate this P value, and why?
These are both categorical variables, so a chi-squared test for a contingency table is indicated.
This would give chi-squared = 24.91, degrees of freedom = 2, P < 0.0001.
There are no cells with expected value less than 5, so we do not need to use Fisher's exact test. If we did, it would give the same answer.
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