York-Toronto-Helsinki Parsed Corpus
of Old English Prose

Index List of Labels (Part-of-Speech and Syntactic)

Syntactic Annotation, Table of Contents
Part-of-speech Annotation, Table of Contents

In the index, labels in parentheses following the main entry indicate labels that may cooccur with the main entry. For instance,
Labels may also be followed by an index number attached to the label with either a hyphen (e.g., NP-ACC-1, IP-MAT-0) or in the case of incomplete clauses (IPX-, CPX-, PTPX-) with an equal sign (e.g., IPX-MAT=0, IPX-SUB-PRN=0)

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Symbols

ADJ (^N, ^A, ^G, ^D, ^I) adjective
ADJP (-NOM, -ACC, -GEN, -DAT) adjective phrase
ADJP-PRD (-NOM, -ACC, -GEN, -DAT) adjective phrase, predicate
ADJP-PRN (-NOM, -ACC, -GEN, -DAT) adjective phrase, appositive
ADJR (^N, ^A, ^G, ^D, ^I) adjective, comparative
ADJS (^N, ^A, ^G, ^D, ^I) adjective, superlative
ADJX (-NOM, -ACC, -GEN, -DAT) adjectival constituent, ambiguous level (ADJ, ADJ', or ADJP)
-ADT added to adjuncts
ADV adverb
ADV+P adverb plus preposition
ADV21 ADV22 adverb, written as two words
ADV^D adverb, directional
ADV^L adverb, locative
ADV^T adverb, temporal
ADV^T21 ADV^T22 adverb, temporal, written as two words (+t+ar rihte)
ADVP adverb phrase
ADVP-DIR adverb phrase, directional
ADVP-LOC adverb phrase, locative
ADVP-TMP adverb phrase, temporal
ADVR adverb, comparative
ADVS adverb, superlative
ADVX adverbial constituent, ambiguous level (ADV, ADV', or ADVP)
AX auxiliary verb, infinitive
AXD auxiliary verb, past indicative/subjunctive ambiguous
AXDI auxiliary verb, past indicative
AXDS auxiliary verb, past subjunctive
AXG auxiliary verb, present participle
AXI auxiliary verb, imperative
AXP auxiliary verb, present indicative/subjunctive ambiguous
AXPI auxiliary verb, present indicative
AXPS auxiliary verb, past indicative
BAG (^N) BE, present participle
BE (^D) BE, infinitive (inflected)
BED BE, past indicative/subjunctive ambiguous
BEDI BE, past indicative
BEDS BE, past subjunctive
BEI BE, imperative
BEN (^N, ^A, ^G, ^D) BE, past participle
BEP BE, present indicative/subjunctive ambiguous
BEPHBE, imperative/subjunctive ambiguous
BEPI BE, present indicative
BEPS BE, present subjunctive

C complementizer
CODE metalinguistic material
CONJ conjunction
CONJP conjunction phrase
CP-ADV (-PRN, -SPE) adverbial clause (appositive/parenthetical, direct speech)
CP-CAR clause-adjoined relative
CP-CLF (-SPE) cleft (direct speech)
CP-CMP (-SPE) comparative clause (direct speech)
CP-DEG (-SPE) degree complement (direct speech)
CP-EOP (-SPE) infinitival relative / purpose infinitive with a gap (direct speech)
CP-EXL (-SPE) exclamation (direct speech)
CP-FRL (-SPE) free relative, complement of verb (direct speech)
CP-FRL-ADT (-SPE) free relative, adjunct (direct speech)
CP-FRL-DIR (-SPE) free relative, directional (direct speech)
CP-FRL-LFD (-SPE) free relative, left-dislocated (direct speech)
CP-FRL-LOC (-SPE) free relative, locative (direct speech)
CP-FRL-PRD (-SPE) free relative, predicate (direct speech)
CP-FRL-PRN (-SPE) free relative, appositive or parenthetical (direct speech)
CP-FRL-SBJ (-SPE) free relative, subject (direct speech)
CP-FRL-TMP (-SPE) free relative, temporal (direct speech)
CP-QUE (-PRN, -SPE) question, direct or indirect, (appositive/parenthetical, direct speech)
CP-QUE-ADT (-SPE) adjunct questions (direct speech)
CP-QUE-LFD indirect question, left-dislocated
CP-QUE-x (CP-QUE-SPE-x) indirect question, extraposed clausal subject (direct speech)
CP-QUE-SBJ indirect question subject
CP-REL (-PRN, -SPE) relative clause (direct speech)
CP-THT (-PRN, -SPE) that-clause (appositive/parenthetical, direct speech)
CP-THT-LFD that-clause, left-dislocated
CP-THT-SBJ that-clause subject
CP-THT-x (CP-THT-SPE-x) that-clause, extraposed clausal subject (direct speech)
CPX (-SPE) incomplete generic CP (direct speech)
CPX-ADV (-SPE) incomplete adverbial CP (direct speech)
CPX-CMP (-SPE) incomplete comparative CP (direct speech)
CPX-THT (-SPE) incomplete that-clause (direct speech)
CPX-QUE (-SPE) incomplete indirect question (direct speech)
CPX-x (CPX-SPE-x) incomplete generic CP, extraposed clausal subject (direct speech)
-c added to constituents to indicate unexpected case (late texts only)
D (^N, ^A, ^G, ^D, ^I) determiner
FP focus particle
FRAG sentence fragment
FW foreign word
HAG (^N, ^D, ^G) HAVE, present participle
HV (^D) HAVE, infinitive (inflected)
HVD HAVE, past indicative/subjunctive
HVDI HAVE, past indicative
HVDS HAVE, past subjunctive
HVI HAVE, imperative
HVN (^N) HAVE, past participle, verbal or adjectival
HVP HAVE, present indicative/subjunctive
HVPI HAVE, present indicative
HVPS HAVE, present subjunctive
ID token identification
INTJ interjection
INTJP interjection phrase
IP-INF (-PRN, -SPE) infinitive, complement (appositive/parenthetical, direct speech)
IP-INF-ABS infinite, absolute
IP-INF-LFD infinitive, left-dislocated
IP-INF-NCO (-SPE) infinitive, non-complement (direct speech)
IP-INF-SBJ (-SPE) infinitival subject (direct speech)
IP-INF-x (IP-INF-SPE-x) extraposed infinitival subject (direct speech)
IP-MAT (-PRN, -SPE) matrix clause (appositive/parenthetical, direct speech)
IP-MAT-x (IP-MAT-SPE-x) extraposed subject matrix clause (direct speech)
IP-SMC (-SPE)small clause (direct speech)
IP-SUB (-SPE) subordinate clause (direct speech)
IP-SUB-CON (-SPE) conjunct subordinate clause (direct speech)
IPX-INF (-SPE) incomplete infinitive, complement (direct speech)
IPX-INF-NCO (-SPE) incomplete infinitive, non-complement (direct speech)
IPX-MAT (-PRN, -SPE)incomplete matrix clause (appositive/parenthetical, direct speech)
IPX-SMC (-SPE) incomplete small clause (direct speech)
IPX-SUB (-PRN, -SPE) incomplete subordinate clause (appositive/parenthetical, direct speech)
IPX-SUB-CON (-PRN, -SPE) incomplete conjunct subordinate clause (appositive/parenthetical, direct speech)
LATIN Latin text, non-argument
-LFD added to a left-dislocated constituent
MAN^N indefinite subject pronoun MAN
MD (^D) modal verb, infinitive (inflected)
MDD modal verb, past indicative/subjunctive ambiguous
MDDI modal verb, past indicative
MDDS modal verb, past subjunctive
MDI modal verb, imperative
MDP modal verb, present indicative/subjunctive ambiguous
MDPI modal verb, present indicative
MDPS modal verb, present subjunctive
N (^N, ^A, ^G, ^D, ^I) common noun, singular or plural
NEG negation
NEG+ cliticized negation (attaches to adverbs (ADV), auxiliaries (AX, etc), conjunction (CONJ), forms of BE (BE, etc.), forms of HAVE (HV, etc.), modals (MD, etc.), verbs (VB, etc.) and quantifiers (Q))
NEG+Q+N (^N, ^A, ^G) negative quantifier + noun (nan+ting)
NEG+Q+Q (^N, ^A) negative quantifier (namare)
NEG+Q21, NEG+Q22 negative quantifier split (nates hwon)
NODE indicates a partial token in the output of CorpusSearch
NP (-ACC, -GEN, -DAT) noun phrase, argument
NP-ADT (-NOM, -ACC, -GEN, -DAT) noun phrase, adjunct
NP-DAT-DIR noun phrase, directional
NP-EXT (-ACC, -GEN, -DAT) noun phrase, extent
NP-LFD (-NOM, -ACC, -GEN, -DAT) noun phrase, left-dislocated
NP-LOC (-ACC, -DAT) noun phrase, locative
NP-PRD (-NOM, -ACC, -GEN, -DAT) noun phrase, predicate
NP-NOM noun phrase subject in tensed clause
NP-NOM-x expletive noun phrase subject in tensed clause
NP-NOM-PRD-RSP noun phrase predicate, resumptive
NP-PRN (-NOM, -ACC, -GEN, -DAT) noun phrase, appositive
NP-RFL (-ACC, -GEN, -DAT) noun phrase, reflexive argument
NP-RFL-ADT (-ACC, -DAT) noun phrase, reflexive adjunct
NP-ACC-RFL-RSP noun phrase, reflexive argument, resumptive
NP-DAT-RSP-ADT noun phrase adjunct, resumptive
NP-RSP (-NOM, -ACC, -GEN, -DAT) noun phrase argument, resumptive
NP-SBJ (-ACC, -GEN, -DAT) noun phrase subject, non-nominative
NP-ACC-SBJ-x expletive noun phrase subject, non-nominative
NP-TMP (-ACC, -GEN, -DAT) noun phrase, temporal
NP-VOC (-NOM) noun phrase, vocative
NP-c (-NOM, -ACC, -GEN, -DAT) noun phrase with unexpected case (late texts only)
NR (^N, ^A, ^G, ^D) proper noun, singular or plural
NUM (^N, ^A, ^G, ^D, ^I) number
NUMP (-NOM, -ACC, -GEN, -DAT) number phrase
NUMP-PRD (-NOM, -ACC) number phrase, predicate
NX (-NOM, -ACC, -GEN, -DAT) nominal constituent, ambiguous level (N, N', or N)
P preposition
PP prepositional phrase
PP-LFD prepositional phrase, left-dislocated
PP-PRN prepositional phrase, appositive or parenthetical
PP-RSP prepositional phrase, resumptive
-PRD added to non-verbal predicates
-PRN added to an appositive or parenthetical constituent
PRO (^N, ^A, ^G, ^D) personal pronoun
PRO$ (^N, ^A, ^G, ^D, ^I) possessive pronoun
PTP (-NOM, -ACC, -GEN, -DAT) participial phrase
PTP-CASE-ABS (-NOM, -ACC, -DAT) participial absolute
PTP-NOM-PRD participial phrase, predicate
PTPX (-NOM, -ACC, -DAT) (-PRN) incomplete participial phrase (appositive or parenthetical)
PTPX-CASE-ABS (-NOM, -DAT) (-PRN) incomplete participial absolute (appositive or parenthetical)
Q (^N, ^A, ^G, ^D, ^I) quantifier
Q+N^A quantifier + noun (ani+ting)
QP (-NOM, -ACC, -GEN, -DAT) quantifier phrase
QP-ADT (-ACC, -GEN, -DAT) quantifier phrase, adjunct
QP-EXT (-NOM, -ACC, -GEN, -DAT) quantifier phrase, extent
QP-PRD (-NOM, -ACC, -GEN) quantifier phrase, predicate
QR (^N, ^A, ^G, ^D) quantifier, comparative
QS (^N, ^A, ^G, ^D) quantifier, superlative
QTP quotation phrase
QTP-x extraposed quotation phrase subject
QX-NOM quantifier phrase, ambiguous level (Q, Q', or QP)
-RFL added to reflexive noun phrases
RP adverbial particle
RP+ cliticized adverbial particle (attaches to BE, HAVE, and lexical verbs)
RPX adverbial particle or preposition with elided complement
RRC reduced relative clause
-RSP added to a resumptive element
-SBJ added to non-nominative and clausal subjects
-SPE added to IPs and CPs to indicate direct speech
TO infinitival TO
UTP the verbal form UTON
VAG (^N, ^A, ^G, ^D, ^I) lexical verb, present participle
VB (^D) lexical verb, infinitive (inflected)
VBD lexical verb, past tense indicative/subjunctive ambiguous
VBDI lexical verb, past tense indicative
VBDS lexical verb, past tense subjunctive
VBI lexical verb, imperative
VBN (^N, ^A, ^G, ^D, ^I) past participle
VBP lexical verb, present indicative/subjunctive ambiguous
VBPH lexical verb, imperative/subjunctive ambiguous
VBPI lexical verb, present indicative
VBPS lexical verb, present subjunctive
WADJ (^N, ^A, ^G, ^D, ^I) wh-adjective
WADJP (-NOM, -ACC, -GEN, -DAT) wh- adjective phrase
WADV (^D, ^L, ^T) wh-adverb (directinal, locative, temporal)
WADV+P wh-adverb plus preposition
WADVP (-DIR, -LOC, -TMP) wh- adverb phrase (directional, locative, temporal)
WNP (-NOM, -ACC, -GEN, -DAT) wh- noun phrase
WPP wh- prepositional phrase
WPRO (^N, ^A, ^G, ^D, ^I) wh-pronoun
WQ HW+A+DER as a question particle introducing questions
WQP (-NOM, -ACC, -GEN, -DAT) wh- quantifier phrase
X ungrammatical because of textual problems
XP indicates a mismatch between form and function
XP-PRD XP predicate
XP-PRN XP appositive
XP-SBJ XP subject
XX unknown word or unclear part-of-speech (usually because of text problems)
-x added to an expletive subject and its linked extraposed clause
, (comma) non-final sentence punctuation
. (period) sentence-final punctuation
$ beginning a word indicates emendation
-# added to the label of a moved constituent (where # is any non-zero number); the same index number appears on the trace
-0/-00/-000 added to the label of a complete clause which acts as a pattern for a clause with elision
=0/=00/=000 added to the label of a clause incomplete through elision
(XP *T*) a wh-trace (where XP is any phrase)
(XP *ICH*) the trace of scrambling or extrapostion (where XP is any phrase)
(XP *) the generic empty category (where XP is NP, NP-SBJ, VB, or Q)