York-Toronto-Helsinki Parsed Corpus
of Old English Prose

Part-of-speech Reference Manual

Ann Taylor, University of York
March 2003

Table of Contents


This manual focuses on the part-of-speech labels assigned to the lexical items in the corpus. In the fully annotated corpus, the part-of-speech tag (or word-level label) is the label on the minimal pair of parentheses surrounding the word. Part-of-speech tagged files, in which the tag is attached to the word by an underscore are also available in the pos directory. In this manual, the tags will be presented as in the fully annotated corpus.
(PRO^D him)       <-- pos tag in fully annotated corpus (psd file)

(N^N hlaford)

him_PRO^D         <-- pos tag in part-of-speech tagged file (pos file)


While some part-of-speech tags are based on the lexical item itself, others are dependent on the syntactic environment in which the word is found. This manual includes syntactic information only to the extent that it affects the assignment of tags. Syntactic information can be found at an introductory level in the Ycoe Lite manual.


      final punctuation         . (period)
      non-final punctuation     , (comma)

Any punctuation that ends a token (periods, commas, semi-colons, question marks, etc.) is tagged with a period. Any punctuation which does not coincide with the end of token is tagged with a comma. Tokens can also terminate without any punctuation. A token consists of one main verb and its associated arguments and adjuncts. Conjoined subordinate clauses are included within the same token. When searching with CorpusSearch, the default is for punctuation to be ignored.

Periods in the text which are not used as sentential punctuation, such as periods indicating abbreviation, surrounding numbers and certain words (e.g., .x. .Mon. etc.), are not separated from the word they belong to.


(NP-NOM (N .+a.))

Metalinguistic information

A certain amount of metalinguistic information is included in the corpus. Some, such as Dictionary of Old English (DOE) identifiers and titles, and YCOE ID labels, are outside the units which are routinely searched. Others, like comments, are within the parsed text, but are ignored by CorpusSearch by default. All metalinguistic information is contained within a node labelled CODE. For an explanation of the various types of metalinguistic information included in the corpus, see Metalinguistic markup.
(CODE <T03020_+ALS_[Christmas]_B1.3.2>)     <-- DOE title

(CODE <T03020000400,5>)                     <-- DOE identifier

(CODE <TEXT:se+de>)                         <-- comments

(CODE <COM:emendation_from_ms.B>)


Instrumental case
Case on ambiguous items
Nom/acc ambiguities
Ambiguities among oblique cases
Some difficult cases
Case with prepositions
Case with adjectives
Genitive case marking relations between substantives
Case on quantifiers
Case with quantifiers
Case on participles
Participles as part of the main verb sequence
Participles as predicates of small clauses
Modifying and attributive participles
Case on left-dislocations

Table of Contents

While case is a fully productive category in Old English, many case forms are formally ambiguous, and sometimes remain ambiguous even in context. Our basic approach to indicating case in the prose corpus is to mark it when it is clear, but not when it is ambiguous, or potentially ambiguous, tempered by considerations of the effort involved and the needs of the system as a whole.

Case is indicated by a label attached to the main formal category label (N, ADJ, D, etc.) with a carat ^.

nominative        N (N^N, ADJ^N, D^N, etc.)
accusative	  A (N^A, ADJ^A, D^A, etc.)
genitive          G
dative            D
instrumental      I
The following parts of speech may be labelled for case:

In addition, the so-called "inflected infinitive" is labelled with dative case (VB^D).

Certain items are never labelled for case. These are:

The following categories are not labelled for case under certain circumstances:

Case is labelled on all case-inflecting words in the following circumstances:

Decisions about case are based on the gender of the noun as listed in Clark Hall (A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, Fourth Edition, 1960). Nouns listed with more than one gender are treated as ambiguous if the noun would be ambiguous in that form under any of the listed genders. Therefore a singular noun in -E listed as mf (masculine or feminine) will be treated as ambiguous and unlabelled for case rather than being labelled dative (as it would be if it were masculine). Note that this is done regardless of the usage of the noun in any particular text; that is, if a noun listed as mfn in Clark Hall is always (where it is possible to tell) masculine in some particular text, it is still treated as ambiguous in any context where it would be ambiguous if it were feminine. In practice this usually means that any noun which includes feminine in its possible genders is treated as feminine, since feminines are ambiguous in more contexts than masculines or neuters.

Although number is not labelled on nouns in our system, number may affect the assignment of case since the range of possible ambiguities is often different in the singular and plural. When the number of a noun is not clear from its form alone, it is taken from the translation (if there is one) or context. If it is not possible to determine the number this may affect the labelling of case since more ambiguities exist if number is not known.

Instrumental case

Only masculine/neuter determiners, quantifiers and adjectives are labelled with instrumental case. For all feminine forms, and for masculine nouns, the instrumental is always ambiguous with the dative, and is labelled dative by default. Our approach at word-level is to label only unambiguous instrumental forms as instrumental. Note that we are fairly literal about this, and some forms labelled instrumental may be degraded forms of other cases (+TAN = +TAM?). The result of this labelling policy is constituents with mixed case, some forms instrumental and others dative. At phrase-level, all constituents containing an instrumental are labelled dative. In our system instrumental is a subcase of dative and the case inherited by ambiguous items from an unambiguous instrumental, is dative.
(PP (P +ar)
    (NP-DAT (D^I +tan)))

(PP (P For)
    (NP-DAT (D^I +di)))

(PP (P mid)
    (NP-DAT (Q^I ealle)))

(QP-DAT-ADT (Q^I micle)) 

(NP-DAT (D^I +dan) (N^D sancte)

(NP-DAT (Q^I mycle) (N^D weorede))

(ADVP (Q^I myccle) (ADVR swi+dor))

(NP-DAT (D^I +ty) (ADJR^D m+arran) (N^D hungre))

(NP-DAT (D^I +dan) (ADJ^D so+dan) (N^D geleafan))

Case on ambiguous items

The marking of case on words which are not unambiguous in isolation, and which do not inherit case in any of the specified ways depends on a series of rules for resolving (or failing to resolve) the ambiguity.

Nom/acc ambiguities

Because subjects have special status in our system, nom/acc formal ambiguity is almost always resolved and subjects and formally nom/acc ambiguous complements are virtually always labelled for case in the annotation.

We make the following assumptions:

Given the above assumptions, there are only a small number of contexts where nom/acc formal ambiguity cannot be resolved and a form which is nom/acc ambiguous will not be labelled for case.

Ambiguities among oblique cases

As far as the oblique cases are concerned, fewer assumptions are made. Apart from in copular constructions where acc/gen/dat ambiguous forms are always taken as dative, no attempt is made to resolve acc/dat ambiguity for any verb which takes only dative and/or accusative complements (i.e., all verbs except those listed in Mitchell as potentially taking genitive). Thus the pronouns ME, +TE, UNC, EOW are virtually always unlabelled for case (apart from in copular constructions or in conjunction with unambiguously marked items), as are most feminine singulars in isolation since they are formally acc/gen/dat ambiguous, and masculines and neuters with a nominative in -E (acc/dat ambiguous).
                  (NP-DAT (PRO^D me))  <-- otherwise acc/dat ambiguous pronoun labelled dative in copular construction
                  (BEPI is)
                  (NP-NOM (D^N +dis)))
      (ID coaelive,+ALS[Pr_Moses]:246.2996))

(NODE (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-DAT (PRO^D us))  <-- otherwise acc/dat ambiguous pronoun labelled dative in copular construction
                  (BEPI is)
                  (NP-NOM (PRO$^N +tin) (N^N lif))
                  (ADJP-NOM-PRD (ADJ^N nydbehefe))
                  (ADVP-TMP (ADV^T git)))
      (ID coaelive,+ALS_[Apollinaris]:223.4706))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-NOM (D^N +tis) (ADJ^N earme) (N^N wif))
              (NP (PRO me)) <-- in non-copular construction pronoun not labelled for case 
              (VBD gesohte)
              (. ,)) (ID coaelive,+ALS_[Basil]:172.565))

                      (ADJP-NOM (ADJ^N sylf)))
              (VBPI forgif+d)
              (NP (N mihte) (CONJ and) (N streng+de)) <-- acc/gen/dat ambiguous feminines not labelled for case 
              (NP-DAT (PRO$ his) (N^D folce))
              (. ;)) (ID copreflives,+ALS_[Pref]:19.11))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-NOM *con*)
          (VBD lede)
          (NP-DAT (PRO^D him))
          (NP (PRO$ his) (N mete)) <-- acc/dat ambiguous masculine not labelled for case
          (. .)) (ID coaelive,+ALS_[Basil]:427.753))

When a verb is listed in Mitchell (Old English Syntax, 1985) as potentially taking genitive, case is not labelled if the form of the complement is ambiguous among the cases the verb is listed as taking. Thus, most feminine singulars will be ambiguous with a verb which takes genitive or dative (even accompanied by a determiner or adjective), while if the verb takes accusative or genitive, unmodified feminine singulars will be ambiguous (as always) but modified feminine singulars mostly will not be (depending on whether the modification is strong or weak). Plurals in -A, however, may be ambiguous with verbs which take accusative or genitive (while they would not be with verbs taking accusative and/or dative). Thus in the singular, the primary ambiguity is gen/dat, while in the plural it is acc/gen. Dat/gen ambiguous complements of verbs which only take genitive are labelled genitive, but note that acc/gen/dat ambiguity in the feminine, and acc/dat ambiguity in the masculine/neuter is still not resolved for these verbs.

( (CODE <T03030003200,112>)
          (VBD gelyfde) <-- geliefan takes acc/gen/dat
          (NP-NOM (D^N se) (N^N f+ader))
          (NP (D +t+are) (N leasunga))) <-- gen/dat ambiguous
  (ID coaelive,+ALS_[Eugenia]:112.254))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-NOM *con*)
          (NP (PRO$ his) (N wundra)) <-- acc/gen ambiguous 
          (VBD wiste)) <-- takes acc/gen
  (ID coaelive,+ALS_[Maur]:48.1523))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ and)
              (NP-NOM (PRO^N ic))
              (NEG ne)
              (VBP gemune) <-- takes acc/gen, not dative 
              (NP-GEN (NEG^Q nanre) <-- gen/dat ambiguous but labelled genitive
                      (NP-GEN (PRO$ his) (N^G synna))
                      (CP-REL (WNP-1 0) 
                              (C +te)
                              (IP-SUB (NP *T*-1)
                                      (NP-NOM (PRO^N he))
                                      (VBD gefremode))))
              (. .)) (ID coaelive,+ALS[Ash_Wed]:153.2789))

( (IP-MAT (NP-NOM *con*)
          (VBD +tancode)
          (NP (PRO$ his) (N +tingunge)) 
          (. ,)) (ID coaelive,+ALS_[Basil]:198.581))
	      <-- acc/gen/dat ambiguous feminine so unlabelled despite the 
	          fact that +tancian only take genitive 

Some difficult cases

Feminines in -UNG sometimes have singular forms in -A rather than -E. Often these are datives, but genitives and accusatives also occur. If the noun is clearly plural, an -A form is taken as acc/gen ambiguous and will be labelled accusative, genitive or not labelled, according to the usual rules. In the singular, however, -UNGA is always treated as acc/gen/dat ambiguous, just like -UNGE.
(PP (P mid)
    (NP (N herunga)))

(NP (NP-GEN (D^G +t+ara) (N^G halgena))
    (N +trowunga))

(NP (PRO$ his) (ADJ m+arlican) (N drohtnunga))

                  (NP-NOM-VOC (N^N f+ader))
                  (, ,)
                  (HVDI h+afdest)
                  (NP-NOM (PRO^N +du))
                  (ADVP-TMP (ADV^T gyt))
                  (NP-ACC (NUM^A ane) (N^A bletsunga))) <-- acc sg in -A
      (ID cootest,Gen:27.38.1130))

For a number of nouns with gen/dat sg. and nom/acc/gen pl. in -A (esp. HAND, WUDU, DURU, FELDA) it is often difficult to decide with certainty the number of the noun since both make sense in context (he put it in his hand/hands; they opened the door/doors). Consistent with our policy of not resolving acc/dat ambiguity, for these nouns all forms in -A, whether singular or plural are considered ambiguous unless the ambiguity is resolved according the usual rules. The -A forms are thus treated as acc/gen/dat ambiguous in the same way as the feminine singular in -E. Similar nouns like SUNU and NOSU are not generally a problem since the number of sons/noses is usually clear.
(NP (PRO$ his) (N handa))

(PP (P on)
    (NP (N handa)))

(PP (P +at)
    (NP (NP-GEN (D^G +t+ara) (N^G cyrcan))
	(N dura)))

(PP (P mid)
    (NP (N wuda)))

(PP (P to)
    (NP (N wuda)))

-AN is taken as a form of the dative ending -UM in the following circumstances:

We treat family members as follows. While forms of MODOR, DOHTOR, and BRO+TOR with an -O- root vowel are primarily accusitive or genitive, dative forms do occur. Thus these forms as well as F+ADER and SWEOSTOR are acc/gen/dat ambiguous. MEDER, DEHTER, BRE+TER are primarily dative, but also occur as genitives and are thus treated as genitive/dative ambiguous.

Case with prepositions

The complements of prepositions are treated in much the same way as complements of verbs. Acc/dat ambiguity is never resolved.
(PP (P to)
    (NP (N munde)))

(PP (P to)
    (NP (N blisse)))

(PP (NP (PRO eow))
    (P to))

Few prepositions take genitive, and of those which do, only TO and WI+D are common. With TO the genitive is fairly rare and we thus resolve gen/dat ambiguities in favour of dative. Thus only unambiguous genitives are labelled genitive, all others are labelled as dative (if the ambiguity is gen/dat) or ambiguous (if the ambiguity is acc/gen/dat).
(PP (P to)  <-- unambiguous dative
    (NP-DAT (ADJ^D langum) (N^D gemynde))) 

(PP (P to)  <-- unambiguous genitive
    (NP-GEN (N^G nones)))

(PP (P to)  <-- gen/dat ambiguity resolved in favour of dative
    (NP-DAT (D^D +t+are) (ADJ^D ecan) (N^D h+ale)))

(PP (P to)  <-- acc/dat ambiguity not resolved
    (NP (PRO$ his) (N rice)))

(PP (P to)  <-- acc/gen/dat ambiguity not resolved
    (NP (N getrymminge)))

With WI+T, on the other hand, the cases seem more evenly distributed, and we thus treat WI+T on par with verbs which take acc/gen/dat and only unambiguous forms are labelled for case.
(PP (P wi+d)  <-- unambiguous accusative 
    (NP-ACC (PRO^A hine)))

(PP (P wi+d)  <-- unambiguous dative 
    (NP-DAT (VAG^D $licgendum) (N^D feo)))))

(PP (P wi+d)  <-- unambiguous genitive 
    (NP-GEN (PRO^G his)))

(PP (P wi+d)  <-- acc/gen (pl) ambiguous
    (NP (NP-GEN (N^G deofles))
	(N syrwunga)))

(PP (P wi+d)  <-- acc/dat ambiguous
    (NP (PRO eow)))

(PP (P wi+d)  <-- acc/gen/dat ambiguous
    (NP (N unrihtwisnysse)))

Case with adjectives

Adjectives take either genitive or dative complements, or both. In copular constructions it is difficult in all cases to distinguish dative complements of adjectives from datives of interest. An NP which may be complement of the predicate adjective or a dative of interest in a copular construction is labelled dative even when acc/dat ambiguous. The same is true in constructions with the verb +TYNCAN to seem. Datives of interest in other constructions follow the normal rules for disambiguating case. If the adjective takes only genitive, the complement is labelled genitive, even when acc/gen/dat ambiguous. Although some adjectives take both dative and genitive complements, most of this type strongly favour the genitive and we have therefore in all cases of gen/dat ambiguity with these adjectives (FULL, GEMYNDIG, WEOR+D, etc.) labelled the complement genitive, rather than leaving it unlabelled.
( (CODE <T03020009900,215>)
  (IP-MAT (ADVP (ADV Witodlice))
          (NP-NOM (D^N +ta) (ADJ^N arleasan))
          (BEPI beo+d)
          (NP-DAT (PRO$ heora) (ADJ^D yfelum) (N^D weorcum)) <-- dative with predicate ADJP
          (ADJP-NOM-PRD (ADJ^N gelice))
          (. .)) (ID coaelive,+ALS_[Christmas]:215.170))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-NOM *con*)
          (NP-DAT-RFL (PRO^D him)) <-- dative with predicate ADJP
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV^T +ta))
          (ADJP-NOM-PRD (ADJ^N bli+de))
          (BEDI w+as)
          (. .)) (ID coaelive,+ALS_[Basil]:195.579))

( (CODE <T03030002600,92>)
  (IP-MAT (NP-NOM (NR^N Eugenia))
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV^T +ta))
          (VBD wunode)
          (PP (P on)
              (NP-DAT (D^D +tam) (N^D mynstre)))
          (PP (P mid)
              (NP-DAT (ADJ^D w+arlicum) (N^D mode)))
          (CP-ADV (P +teah)
		  (C +te)
		  (IP-SUB (NP-NOM (PRO^N heo))
			  (NP-NOM-PRD (N^N m+aden))
			  (BEDS w+are)))
          (, ,)
          (PP (P mid)
              (NP-DAT (PRO$ hyre) (NUM^D twam) (N^D cnihtum)))
          (, ,)
          (ADJP-NOM (ADJ^N uncu+d)
                    (NP-DAT (Q^D gehwam))) <-- dative with non-predicate ADJP
          (. ,)) (ID coaelive,+ALS_[Eugenia]:92.241))

(NODE (IP-MAT (NP-NOM-x *exp*)
              (NP-DAT (PRO^D Us)) <-- acc/dat ambiguous labelled dative with +TYNCAN and predicate
              (VBPI +dinc+d)
              (ADJP-NOM-PRD (ADV to) (ADJ^N menigfeald))
              (CP-THT-x (C +t+at)
                        (IP-SUB (NP-NOM (PRO^N we))
                                (ADVP (ADVR swi+dor))
                                (PP (P embe)
                                    (NP-ACC (D^A +dis)))
                                (VBPS sprecon)))
              (. .))
      (ID cotempo,+ATemp:10.24.345))

(ADJP-NOM (ADJ^N efenece) (CONJ &) (ADJ^N gelic)
	  (NP-DAT (PRO$ his) (N^D f+ader))) <-- acc/gen/dat ambiguous labelled dative with adjective taking only dative

(ADJP-NOM (ADJ^N orwena)
	  (NP-GEN (N^G lifes))) <-- genitive complement 

(ADJP-NOM-PRD (NP-GEN (N^G bealwes))
	      (ADJ^N full))

(ADJP-NOM-PRD (ADJ^N wyr+de)
	      (NP-GEN (D^G +t+as) (N^G fyrstes)))

(ADJP-NOM (ADJ^N f+agen)
	  (NP-GEN (PRO$ his) (N^G gecyrrednysse))) <-- gen/dat ambiguous N labelled genitive with adjective taking gen/dat

The dative of comparison is always labelled dative even when ambiguous.
(ADJP-NOM-PRD (ADJR^N w+algrimre) (CONJ &) (ADJR^N strengre)
	      (NP-DAT (Q^D eallum) (D^D +tam) (N^D +argedonum)))

	      (NP-DAT (D^D +tam) (ADJR^D +arran)))

Genitive case marking relations between substantives

Genitive case is labelled on all parts of a potentially genitive nominal constituent which stands in relation (often, but not always, possessive) with another substantive. As usual, items which are never labelled for case are not labelled for case in genitive constructions either.
(NP-NOM (NP-GEN (PRO$ his) (N^G halgena))    <-- unambiguous genitive
	(N^N wundra))

(NP-DAT (NP-GEN (D^G +t+are) (N^G hl+addre)) <-- gen/dat ambiguous labelled genitive
	(N^D stapum))

(NP (NP-GEN (N^G helle)) <-- acc/gen/dat ambiguous labelled genitive 
    (N wite))

(NP-NOM (NP-GEN (N^G galnysse))
	(N^N ontendnyss))

(NP-GEN (NR Sancte) (NR^G Stephanes) <-- Sancte is never labelled for case

(NP-ACC (Q^A eall)
	(NP-GEN (NR $Breotene)) <-- place names are never labelled for case
	(N^A gem+aro))

Case on quantifiers

Case is labelled on inflecting quantifiers used as modifiers or substantives according to the usual rules

The quantifiers MICEL, LYTEL, HWON/NATESHWON, MA, L+AS, MARE, L+ASSE, M+AST, L+AST, AHT, NAHT, EALL, HW+ATHUGU may also be used adverbially. Case is labelled on MICEL, LYTEL, and EALL in all such cases since they occur in a range of cases in adverbial function, as well as MARE and L+ASSE; other quantifers in adverbial use generally have zero inflection, and are only labelled for case in the few situations in which the inflection is not zero. Of these MA, LYT, L+AS never inflect under any circumstances, while HWON and HW+ATHUGU only occur with zero inflection in adverbial use (note that HWENE, original instrumental of HWON is labelled as an adverb). AHT/NAHT occur overwhelmingly with zero inflection in adverbial use, but there are very occasional uses of the The "zero inflection" therefore represents either an invariant form or original accusative case. dative which are labelled for case. The adverbial forms of MARE and L+ASSE are accusative.

(Q aht) <-- adverbial
(Q^A aht)  <-- modifier or substantive

(NEG+Q naht) <-- adverbial
(NEG+Q^A naht) <-- modifier or substantive
(NEG+Q^D nahte) <-- adverbial or modifier/substantive

(Q^A micel)   <-- always labelled for case
(Q^D miclum)
(Q^I micle)

(Q hwon)      <-- adverbial
(Q^A hwon)    <-- modifier or substantive
(NEG+Q nateshwon) <-- always adverbial

(QR ma)       <-- never labelled for case
(QR l+as)

(QS m+ast)    <-- adverbial
(QS^A m+ast)  <-- modifier or substantive

HWON and HW+ATHUGU may modify adjectives and adverbs as well as nouns; in the latter case they are case-marked, in the former they are not.
(NP-ACC (Q^A hwon) (N^A sealt))

(ADVP-DIR (Q hwon) (ADV^D nor+tan))

(ADJP-ACC (Q hwon) (ADJ^A lange))

(NP-ACC (Q^A hw+athugu) (N^A get+ase))

(ADVP (Q hw+athwega) (ADV wynsumlice))

Case with quantifiers

The nom/acc/gen pl ambiguous complement of an undeclinable quantifier (FELA, MA, LYT, L+AS) is labelled genitive, while with all other quantifiers it is labelled as agreeing with the quantifier. This is a default decision that goes with the majority occuring pattern for each type, although there are clear examples of both that follow the other pattern.
(NP (Q fela)  <-- acc/gen ambiguous taken as genitive with FELA
    (NP-GEN (N^G wundra)))

(NP-NOM (Q fela) (N^N men)) <-- unambiguous non-genitive with FELA

(NP-ACC (Q fela) (N^A +almyssan))
      <-- non-genitive because the complement of FELA is always plural

(NP-ACC (Q^A manega) (N^A tacna)) <-- acc/gen ambiguous taken as agreeing with non-FELA quantifier

Case on participles

Participles as part of the main verb sequence

When participles are part of the main verb sequence or constitute the predicate of a small clause, they are only labelled for case if the case is overt (i.e., non-zero) in the case of past participles, or not -E in the case of present participles. Note that overt inflection in the present participle outside small clauses is exceedingly rare (one example so far).
(IP-MAT (NP-NOM (N^N Gescead))
	(BEPI is)
	(NP-DAT (D^D +d+are) (N^D sawle))
	(VBN forgifen)) <-- no overt case, no case label

	(NP-NOM (PRO^N ge))
	(HVPI habba+d)
	(VBN gehered) <-- no overt case, no case label

(IP-MAT (NP-NOM (D^N +Ta) (N^N andgitu))
	(BEPI sint)
	(VBN^N gehatene) <-- overt case labelled
	(ADVP (ADV +tus)))

	(NP-NOM (PRO^N he))
	(BEPI bi+d)
	(VAG gyfende)) <-- no overt case, no case label

(IP-SUB (NP-NOM (D^N +teos) (ADJ^N andwearde) (N^N world))
	(BEPI is)
	(VAG^N (VAG^N gewitendu) (CONJ &) (VAG^N feallendu))) <-- overt case labelled

(IP-SMC-SPE (NP-ACC-SBJ (PRO$^A minne) (NR^A Crist))
	    (VAG^A cigendne)  <-- overt case labelled
	    (NP-ACC (PRO^A me) (CONJ &) (NR^A Paulus)))

Participles with BE are taken to agree with the subject, and those with HABBAN to agree with the object.
(IP-MAT (NP-NOM (D^N +Ta) (N^N andgitu))
	(BEPI sint)
	(VBN^N gehatene) <-- agrees with subject
	(ADVP (ADV +tus)))

(IP-SUB (NP-NOM (D^N +ta) (N^N h+a+tenan))
	(HVDI h+afdon)
	(NP-ACC (PRO^A hi))
	(VBN^A besetene)) <-- agrees with object

Participles as predicates of small clauses

As predicates in small clauses participles are treated the same as when part of the main verb sequence; that is, they are only given a case label when case is overtly marked.
(IP-SMC (NP-ACC-SBJ (D^A +tone) (VAG^A scinendan) (N^A +ancgel))
	(VAG cumende) <-- no overt case marking, no case label
	(PP (P of)
	    (NP-DAT (N^D heofenum))))

	(VAG^A libbendne))  <-- overt case marking

(IP-SMC (NP-ACC-SBJ (D^A +tone) (N^A apostol))
	(QP-DAT-ADT (Q^D micclum))
	(VBN gebysgod)) <-- no overt case marking, no case label

(IP-SMC (NP-ACC-SBJ (NUM^A +anne) (N^A mann))
	(VBN^A afeallene)) <-- overt case marking

Modifying and attributive participles

In the majority of cases modifying participles are appropriately case-marked, although there are a small number of exceptions (e.g., acc.sg. in zero rather than -NE). Thus, with one exception (naming participles), modifying and attributive participles are labelled with the case of the item they modify, whether the participle is overtly or appropriately case-marked or not.
(NP-NOM (Q^N ealle) (RP+VBN^N oferdone) (N^N +ting))

(NP-ACC (D^A +tonne) (RP+VBN^A fores+adan) (NR^A Eubolum))

(NP-GEN (PRO$^G +tines) (VBN^G gefr+atowodan) (N^G temple))

(NP-DAT (D^D +tam) (VBN^D gebogenan) (N^D m+adene))

The exceptional case is that of "naming" participles (GEHATEN, GECIGEN, etc.) which rarely if ever inflect in attributive use. These are therefore not labelled for case unless it is overt, in the same way as participles which are part of the main verb sequence.
(NP-NOM (Q^N sum) (N^N bisceop)
	(PTP (NP-NOM-PRD (NR^N Helenus))
	     (VBN gehaten))) <-- not labelled for case

(NP-ACC (Q^A sumne) (N^A messepreost)
	(, ,)
	(PTP (NP-NOM-PRD (NR^N Eutropius))
	     (VBN gehaten)))

Case on left-dislocations

Left-dislocated NPs may be in the nominative case even when the resumptive element is oblique. This means that in the case of a left-dislocated nom/acc ambiguous NP with an accusative resumptive element, the ambiguity cannot be resolved, and thus the left-dislocated NP is not labelled for case. The following rules are applied for labelling case on left-dislocated NPs.

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ and)
              (NP-NOM-LFD (D^N se)      <-- nominative left-dislocation
                          (CP-REL-SPE (WNP-NOM-1 0)
                                      (C +de)
                                      (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-NOM *T*-1)
                                                  (NP (PRO me))
                                                  (VBPI +dena+d))))
              (, ,)
              (NP-ACC-RSP (PRO^A hine)) <-- accusative resumptive
              (VBPI $gearwur+da+d)
              (NP-NOM (PRO$^N min) (N^N F+ader))
              (. .))
  (ID coaelhom,+AHom_11:542.1768)) 

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-NOM-LFD (D^N $se)         <-- nominative left-dislocation
                      (CP-REL (WNP-NOM-1 0)
                              (C $+de)
                              (CODE <TEXT:se+de>)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-NOM *T*-1)
                                      (NEG ne)
                                      (MDPI m+ag)
                                      (PP (P for)
                                          (NP (N sceame)))
                                      (NP-ACC (PRO$ his) (N^A gyltas))
                                      (NP-DAT (NUM^D anum) (N^D menn))
                                      (VB geandettan))))
          (, ,)
          (NP-NOM *exp*)
          (NP-DAT-RSP (PRO^D him))      <-- dative resumptive 
          (MDPI sceal)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV^T +tonne))
          (VB sceamian)
          (PP (P +atforan)
              (NP-DAT (N^D heofonwarum) (CONJ and) (N^D eor+dwarum) (CONJ and) (N^D helwarum)))
          (. ,))
      (ID coaelive,+ALS[Ash_Wed]:172.2796))

( (CODE <T03080008600,234>)
  (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-LFD (D +T+at) <-- nom/acc ambiguous left-dislocation unlabelled for case
                      (CP-REL-SPE (WNP-ACC-1 (D^A +t+at))
				  (C 0)
				  (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-ACC *T*-1)
					      (NP-NOM (PRO^N ic))
					      (VBD gelyfde))))
              (NP-ACC-RSP (D^A +t+at)) <-- accusative resumptive
              (NP-NOM (PRO^N ic))
              (VBP geseo)
              (. ,)) (ID coaelive,+ALS[Agnes]:234.1870))

Nouns and pronouns

Pronouns (PRO, PRO$)
Personal pronouns (PRO)
Reflexive pronouns
Possessive pronouns (PRO$)
Indefinite MAN (MAN)
Singular, plural, and collective common nouns (N)
Adverbial use of nouns and adjectives
Proper nouns (NR)
Names of people
Names of places
Days of the week, months, and religious festivals/seasons
Names of languages
Names of God

Table of Contents

Pronouns (PRO, PRO$)

        PRO       Pronoun
        PRO$      Pronoun, possessive
	MAN^N     Indefinite MAN (always nominative)

Personal pronouns (PRO)

All personal pronouns are labelled PRO with the exception of indefinite MAN. Pronouns are tagged for case according to the case-marking rules. First and second person sg/pl pronouns are acc/dat ambiguous and thus are not generally labelled for case except in copular constructions.
(PRO^N he) (PRO^A hine) (PRO^D him) (PRO^G his)

(PRO^N ic) (PRO^A me) (PRO^D me) (PRO me) (PRO^G min)

(PRO^N we) (PRO^A unc) (PRO^D unc) (PRO unc) (PRO^G ure)

Reflexive pronouns

Personal pronouns can be used as reflexives in Old English, but they are not marked as such at the part-of-speech level, but rather in the syntactic annotaton. Forms of SELF are tagged ADJ. The occasional uses of pronoun-plus-SELF (HIMSELF, THEMSELVES etc.) are split to faciliate parsing and comment is included to indicate this (see Word division).
(NP-NOM (PRO^N hi) 
	(ADJP-NOM (ADJ^N sylfe)))

(NP-DAT (PRO^D $him)
	(ADJP-DAT (ADJ^D $selfum))
        (CODE <TEXT:himselfum>))

Possessive pronouns (PRO$)

The following are tagged as possessive pronouns:
Of these HIS, HIRE, and HEORA are not tagged for case. The other possessives are declined like adjectives and are therefore labelled for case according to the usual rules. Notice that all these forms can also be tagged PRO^G if the use is clearly genitival rather than possessive.
(NP-NOM (PRO$^N ure) (N^N h+alend))

(NP-ACC (PRO$^A eower) (N^A mod))

(NP-ACC (PRO$^A eowerne) (N^A geleafan))

(NP-GEN (PRO$^G minra) (N^G wimmanna))

(NP-DAT (PRO$^D eowrum) (N^D gereorde))

(NP-DAT (PRO$ his) (N^D folce)) <-- 3rd person not labelled for case

(NP-DAT (PRO$ hire) (N^D leohte))

(NP-DAT (PRO$ heora) (N^D +tenungum))

URE and EOWER sometimes fail to agree with a following noun, in which case they are tagged simply PRO$ without case. URE is taken as agreeing with masc nom sg, neut nom/acc sg, masc/fem/neuter nom/acc pl and all feminine sgs (with simplification of -RR- in gen/dat). In all other cases (masc/neut dat/gen sg, masc/fem/neut gen/dat pl and masc acc sg), it is labelled PRO$. EOWER agrees with masc/fem nom sg and neut nom/acc sg; in all other cases it is labelled PRO$. In addition EOWRE (like URE) agree with all feminine non-nominatives in -E because of possible simplification of -RR- in the gen/dat. Note that while URE and EOWRE agree with otherwise unambiguous feminine singulars, they are not sufficient to decide case in an otherwise ambiguous constituent.
(NP-GEN (PRO$ ure) (N^G goda))                           (masc. gen.pl.)

(NP-DAT (PRO$ ure) (ADJ^D lenctenlicum) (N^D f+astene))  (neut. dat.sg.)

(NP-GEN (PRO$ ure) (N^G un+tances) )                     (masc. gen.sg.)

(NP-GEN (PRO$ eower) (N^G wifa))                         (neut. gen.pl.)

(PP (P +durh)
    (NP (PRO$ eower) (N hiwr+adene)))                    (fem. acc/dat/gen.sg.)

In the first two following cases, URE/EOWRE is not sufficient to disambiguate case with a feminine in -E; in the latter two, URE is disambiguated by context, as either dative or genitive according to the usual rules.
(NP (PRO$ eowre) (N gewitleaste)               (fem. acc/dat/gen.sg.)

(NP (PRO$ ure) (N +teode))                     (fem. acc/dat/gen.sg.)

(PP (P mid)
    (NP-DAT (Q^D ealre) (PRO$^D ure) (N^D heortan)))  <-- URE dative because of MID and EALRE

(NP-NOM (NEG+Q^N nan) (N^N neod)
	(NP-GEN (PRO$^G ure)(N^G herunge))) <-- URE genitive because possessive

Note that the form O+TRE of adjective O+TER is likewise ambiguous with feminine singulars and is treated exactly like URE/EOWRE.

Indefinite MAN (MAN^N)

Indefinite MAN (ME in late texts) is tagged MAN^N. It is always a subject so always case-marked nominative.

Singular, plural, and collective common nouns (N)

Singular, plural and collective nouns are all tagged N. All common nouns are tagged for case according to the case-marking rules. When an noun is ambiguous for case according to our rules, it is labelled simply N.
(N^N witega))

(N^A ealdorman)

(N^G d+ages)

(N^D +drowungum)

(N +teode)

Unlike in the PPCME2, in the YCOE no distinction is made between singular and plural nouns.

Adverbial use of nouns and adjectives

Many adverbs are in origin case-forms of nouns or adjectives. Many of these are already less than transparent in Old English, especially those in -E. Although it is difficult to know where to draw the line between these categories, our basic approach is that most nouns/adjectives in -E or with no ending used adverbially are labelled as adverbs, most recognizable adjectives/nouns in -ES and -UM used adverbially are labelled as nouns with case. Some common cases of the latter which always occur as single words and are thus labelled as adverbs are:
(ADVP-TMP (ADV^T hwilum))

(ADVP (ADV lifes))

(ADVP (ADV selfwilles))

Among case-forms of adjectives labelled as adverbs are:
(ADVP-TMP (ADV^T d+aglanges))

(ADVP-DIR (ADV^D upweardes))

Less transparent forms in -ES/-UM or without a corresponding noun/adjective labelled as adverbs include:
The adverbial use of nouns labelled as nouns is indicated in the parsing with the label -ADT (adjunct).

Note that unlike nouns, quantifiers used adverbially are never labelled as adverbs.

Proper nouns (NR)

Names of people

All personal names are tagged NR. They are labelled for case following the same rules as for nouns.
(NR^N Paulus)

(NR Marian)

The word SANCTA/SANCTE/SANCTUS used in conjunction with a proper name is tagged NR, but other (native) words possibly used as titles are not. SANCTA/SANCTE/SANCTUS is not case-marked since it does not always inflect reliably.
(NP-NOM (NR Sanctus) (NR^N Paulus))

(NP-NOM (NR Sancte) (NR^N Dunstan))

(NP-NOM (NR Sancta) (NR Maria))

(NP-NOM (NR^N +A+telstan) (N^N cyning))

Two-part names like EAST ENGLA, NOR+T SEAXE, etc. when written as separate words are treated as compounds. Thus the first part is not tagged for case.
(NP-NOM (NR East) (NR^N Engle))

(NP-NOM (NR Nor+t) (NR^N Walas))

(NP-NOM (NR Middel) (NR^N Seaxe))

(NP-NOM (NR Ald) (NR^N Seaxe))

Adjectives corresponding to proper nouns are tagged ADJ, even when used substantively.
(NP-NOM (ADJ^N Scittisc))                the Scottish
(NP-NOM (ADJ^N Ebreisce) (N^N +a))       Hebrew law

Names of places

It can be quite difficult to determine the case of place names unless they contain a common second part which inflects (-CEASTER, -FELD, TUN, etc.), at least in part because of overlapping forms between place names and the names of peoples. The names of places therefore do not generally carry case labels.

Proper place names in isolation never have a case label. Nor are they case-marked in conjunction with case-marked material or when the appropriate case can be inferred from the construction (e.g., genitive); but note that in these cases the phrasal level carries the appropriate case.

(PP (P to)
    (NP (NR Antiochan)))

(PP (P to)
    (NP (NR Rome)))

(NP-ACC (D^A +ta) (ADJ^A halgan) (NR Gerusalem)) 

(PP (P Be)
    (NP-DAT (NP-DAT (N|D gesetnysse)
                    (NP-GEN (NP-GEN (NR Breotene)) <--- case on phrase but not word
                            (CONJP (CONJ o+d+de)
                                   (NP-GEN (NR Hibernia)
                                           (NP-GEN-PRN (NP-GEN (NR|G Scotta))
                                                       (N|G ealandes))))))))

When the name ends in a common noun, it is labelled for case according to the common part; in the usual way, if the common part is ambiguous for case, case is not added. Some common nouns as part of names do not inflect, and thus are never case-marked.
(NP-ACC (NR^A Englaland))

(NP-DAT (NR^D Bretonlande))

(NP-DAT (NR^D Wippedesfleote))

(NP-ACC (NR^A Cerdicesford))

(PP (P in)                            
    (NP (NR Dorcesceastre)))         <--- ambiguous for case

(PP (P +at)
         (NP (NR Wintanceastre)))

Another type sometimes clearly contains a genitive (NOR+TYMBRA LOND land of the Northumbrians, CERDICES ORAN Cerdic's shore), but the name is often ambiguous or potentially ambiguous (ASIA LAND, ROME BYRIG) or has no (?overt) inflection (MOAB LOND). Thus, while at one end of the scale are clear genitives of the names of people/peoples, and at the other are fairly clear compounds although written as two words (e.g., BRETON LAND, rather than inflected BRETONE LAND), in the middle are many unclear cases, either because inflection is absent or unidentifiable, or because it is unclear whether the name is that of a people or a place.

There is no good solution to this problem that is not seriously time-consuming and we have not been particularly successful in solving it. Our solution is a compromise in which all of these cases are given the external structure of an NP with a genitive complement, but the name itself may or may not be labelled for case, depending on whether it seems to be the name of a place or a people. In large numbers of cases this is difficult to determine, and, in practice, the default tends to be that if the name ends in -A (but not -IA), it is taken as genitive plural and therefore (in most cases) the name of a people.

(NP-ACC (NP-GEN (NR^G Westseaxna))
        (N^A lond))

(NP-ACC (NP-GEN (NR^G Nor+tanhymbra))
        (N^A lond))

(PP (P to)
    (NP (NP-GEN (NR^G Seaxna))
        (N rice)))

(PP (P on)
    (NP-DAT (NP-GEN (NR^G Wihtgara))
            (N^D byrg)))

(NP-DAT (NP-GEN (NR^G Woddes))
        (N^D beorge))

(NP-NOM-PRD (NP-GEN (NR^G Cerdices))
            (N^N ora))

(NP-NOM-PRD (NP-GEN (NR Natan))    <--- no case label
            (N^N leaga))

(NP-ACC (NP-GEN (NR Wihte)) 
        (N^A ealond))

(PP (P on)
    (NP-DAT (NP-GEN (NR Rome))
            (N^D byrig)))

Cases with a determiner like ROME +T+ARE BYRIG are always treated as appositives, including when the first or both parts are potentially genitive and one could be taken as dependent on the other (i.e., they are always interpreted as ROME, THE CITY rather than THE CITY OF ROME). Although in general appositives pick up case from their antecedants and vice versa (see Case on appositives), in the case of place names, the proper name is not labelled for case even if the case of the appositive is clear.
(NP-DAT (NR Rome)                            <--- case on NP from appositive
        (NP-DAT-PRN (D^D +t+are) (N^D byrig)))

(PP (P ofer)
    (NP-ACC (NR Nilus)
            (NP-ACC-PRN (D^A +ta) (N^A ea))))

(PP (P of)
    (NP-DAT (NR Alexandria)
            (, ,)
            (NP-DAT-PRN (NP-GEN (NR^G Egypta))
                        (N^D burge))))

(NP-NOM (D^N +t+at) (N^N igland)
        (NP-PRN (NR Deprobane)))

(PP (P buton)
    (NP-DAT (D^D +t+am) (N^D iglande)
            (NP-PRN (NR Taprabane))))

Days of the week, months, and religious festivals/seasons

The names of the days of the week and months of the year are tagged as proper nouns. Religious seasons, such as Lent, and festivals, such as Easter, are also tagged NR. Massdays (HLAFM+ASS, CANDEM+LASS, etc.) and DOMES D+AG are not tagged ,b>NR.
(NR^D Sunnand+agum)

(NR Eastron)

(NR^A Easterd+ag)

(N^A hlafm+ass)

(NP-ACC (NP-GEN (N^G domes))
	(N^A d+ag))

LENCTEN is common when it means spring, but proper when it means the season of Lent. It can also be either a noun or an adjective. When preceding a noun (e.g., LENCTENES F+ASTENES) it is tagged as an adjective, otherwise a noun.
(NP-GEN (ADJ^G lenctenes) (N^G f+astenes))

(NP-DAT (D^D +tam) (ADJ^D halgan) (NR^D Lenctene))

(NP-NOM (N^N lencten) (CONJ and) (N^N sumer) (CONJ and) (N^N herfest) (CONJ and) (N^N winter))

Latin month names are tagged NR as long as they have English inflections. When they have Latin inflections, they are tagged FW. KALEND is not proper in phrases like MAIAS KALEND.
(NP-NOM (NP-GEN (NR^G Maias))    the month of May
	(N^N kalend)) 

In conjunction with Latin-inflected month names KALEND- is tagged FW.
(LATIN (FW vi) (FW Kalend+a) (FW Novembris))

(LATIN (FW iii) (FW Kalend+a) (FW IUNII))

Names of languages

The names of languages are either proper nouns or adjectives.
(NP-ACC (NR^A Laden)

(PP (P on)
    (NP-ACC (ADJ^A englisc)))

Names of God

The following are taken as names of God and tagged NR: GOD, DRIHTEN, JESUS, CRIST. All other ways of referring to God (H+ALEND, SCYPPEND, HALIG GAST, F+A+DER, SUNU, etc.) are tagged as common nouns

Adjectives (ADJ)

Weak adjective/noun ambiguity
Ordinal numbers
Adjectival use of quantifiers(MICEL and LYTEL)
NEAH (adjective)
NUM + WINTRE (adjective)

Table of Contents

      ADJ       Positive adjective
      ADJR      Comparative adjective
      ADJS      Superlative adjective

Adjectives are tagged for case according to the case-marking rules.

(NP-NOM (ADJ^N geleaffulle) (N^N f+aderas))

(NP-NOM (D^N +ta) (ADJ^N l+awedan) (N^N men))

(NP-ACC (D^A +tone) (ADJ^A halgan) (N^A gast))

(NP-GEN (ADJ^G swylcera) (N^G gewrita))

(NP-DAT (D^D +tam) (ADJ^D towerdum) (N^D mannum))

(ADJP-NOM (ADJR^N wlitigre))

(NP-ACC (PRO$^A minne) (ADJR^A swi+dran)) 

(NP-GEN (D^G +t+as) (ADJR^G +arran) (N^G brydguman))

(NP-DAT (D^D +tam) (ADJR^D s+alran) (N^D d+ale))

(NP-NOM (D^N +ta) (ADJS^N yldostan) (N^N preostas))

(NP-ACC (D^A +ta) (ADJS^A scortostan) (N^A wisan))

(NP-GEN (D^G +t+as) (ADJS^G fracodostan) (N^G mennisces)

(NP-DAT (PRO$ his) (ADJS^D leofestan) (N^D godum))

Weak adjective/noun ambiguity

When an adjective has a corresponding weak noun associated with it (e.g. HALIG/HALGA, CRISTEN/CRISTENA) many cases following a determiner are ambiguous between a noun and an adjective reading. The default tagging in these cases is that if the word precedes a noun or is used predicatively it is tagged as an adjective, but otherwise as a noun. Only cases with a weak noun form listed in Clark Hall fall under this rule; e.g. SEOCA is always an adjective because there is no noun SEOCA. The most common nouns affected by this policy are HALGA, CRISTENA, H+A+TENA, and NEXTA (neighbour).
(NP-ACC (D^A +done) (ADJ^A halgan) (N^A w+ar))
(NP-ACC (D^A +ta) (N^A halgan))

(NP-NOM (D^A +ta) (N^N cristenan))

(NP-ACC (PRO$^A +tinne) (N^A nyhstan))

Ordinal numbers

Ordinal numbers are tagged ADJ. +AREST may also be tagged ADVS^T when used as a temporal adverb.
(NP-ACC (D^A +tone) (ADJS^A +arestan) (N^A fisc))

(NP-DAT (D^D +dam) (ADJ^D +triddan) (N^D d+age))

(ADVP-TMP (ADVS^T +arest))


Like the possessive pronouns URE/EOWRE the form O+TRE of the adjective O+TER is ambiguous with feminine singulars because of the possibility of simplification of -RR-. It is therefore taken as agreeing with acc/gen/dat, but is not sufficient to disambiguate among these cases.
(NP-ACC (ADJ^A o+tre) (ADJ^A halige) (N^A gewrito)) <-- unambiguous accusative because of HALIGE

(NP-ACC (Q^A sume) (ADJ^A o+tre) (N^A trymminge))

(NP (ADJ o+dre) (N stowe))  <-- both O+DRE and STOWE are acc/gen/dat ambiguous

(NP (ADJ o+tre) (N lare)

Adjectival use of quantifiers (MICEL and LYTEL)

MICEL and LYTEL and their comparative forms are always tagged as quantifiers even when they are clearly adjectival.
(NP-ACC (Q^A micel) (N^A fyr))

(NP-NOM (PRO$ his) (Q^N micele) (N^N mod))

(NP-ACC (QR^A l+assan) (N^A had))

(NP-NOM-PRN (D^N se) (QR^N mara) (N^N bisceop))

Note that this is slightly different from the PPCME2 where in some cases, notably following a determiner and in copular constructions, these words are tagged as adjectives.

NEAH (adjective)

NEAH is only tagged ADJ when it is overtly inflected or clearly part of a noun phrase. In all other cases it is tagged as an adverb. Thus most cases of NEAH will be tagged ADV, even those in which although it is not overtly inflected it might be taken as agreeing with a masculine or neuter singular noun.
(NP-GEN (Q^G sumre) (ADJ^G neah) (N^G cyrican))

(NP-DAT (D^D +tam) (ADJ^D neah) (N^D wuda))


SWELC and +TYLLIC are tagged as adjectives. SWELCE may also be an adverb or preposition.
(ADJP-NOM-PRD (ADJ^N swylc))

(NP-DAT (ADJ^D swylcum) (N^D frofre))


Forms of SELF are always tagged as adjectives.
(NP-NOM (PRO^N he)
	(ADJP-NOM (ADJ^N sylf)))

	    (ADJP-DAT (ADJ^D sylfum)))

(ADJP-NOM (ADJ^N sylf))

NUM + WINTRE (adjective)

Adjectives ending in WINTRE (ANWINTRE, TWELFWINTRE) meaning x years old, are tagged ADJ when written as single words. When the numbers are written separately, WINTRE is still tagged ADJ and the other parts of the phrase are tagged literally.
(ADJ^N twelfwintre)

(ADJP-NOM (NUM xviii) (ADJ^N wintre))

(ADJP-NOM (NUM fif) (CONJ &) (ADJ^N sixtigwintre))

Quantifiers (Q)

Quantifier plus noun
Negative quantifiers
+AG+TER, NA+TOR (quantifiers)
Undeclinable quantifiers FELA, LYT, MA, L+AS
Quantifiers used adverbially
Uninflected EALL

Table of Contents

         Q         Positive quantifier
         QR        Comparative quantifier
         QS        Superlative quantifier
         NEG+Q     Negative quantifier

With two exceptions, the words on the following list are tagged Q or NEG+Q if negative, in all functions (modifying, abosolute, adverbial, etc.). The exceptions are the wh-indefinites (HWA, HWILC, HW+A+TER etc.) which are also tagged as wh-words and +AG+TER, NA+TOR which are also tagged as conjunctions.

AWIHT/NAWIHT (AHT/NAHT), +ALC, +ANIG/N+ANIG, BEGEN, BUTU, EALL/NEALLE, FEAWE, FELA, HWA (and derivatives +AGHWA, GEHWA, etc.), HW+A+TER (and derivatives including AG+TER/NA+TOR), HWILC (and derivatives GEHWILC, etc.), HWON (and derivatives LYTHWON, NATESHWON), LYT, LYTEL/UNLYTEL, MANIG, MICEL, SUM
The comparative quantifiers are L+AS, MA, MARE, L+ASSE. L+AS and MA do not inflect and are always tagged QR. MARE and L+ASSE inflect according to the weak pattern and so are labelled for case when appropriate according to the rules.
(QR ma) 

(QR l+as)

(NP-ACC (QR^A mare))

(NP-ACC (QR^A maran) (N^A edlean))

(NP (QR maran) (N mihte)

(NP-ACC (QR^A l+assan) (N^A had))

The superlative quantifiers are L+AST, M+AST. When used adverbially they do not inflect and are always labelled QS. When modifying nounds they inflect, usually according to the weak pattern and are labelled for case when appropriate according to the rules.
(QS l+ast)

(QS m+ast)

(QP-NOM (QS m+ast) (Q^N ealle))  <-- adverbial, modifying quantifier

(NP-NOM (D^N seo) (QS^N m+aste) (N^N m+aniu))

(NP-ACC (D^A +tone) (QS^A m+astan) (N^A d+al))

(NP-DAT (D^D +tysum) (QS^D l+astum))


Note that the wh-words (HWA, HWILC, etc.) are also used as wh-words in questions, where they are not tagged Q, but WPRO, WADJ, etc.
Indefinite        Wh-word

(Q^N hwa)         (WPRO^N hwa)
(Q^A hwilcne)     (WADJ^N hwilcne)

Quantifier plus noun

A quantifier + noun combination, e.g., ANI+TING is tagged Q+N with case if appropriate. See also Negative quantifiers.
(Q+N^A ani+ting)

Negative quantifiers

Negative quantifiers are tagged NEG+Q with case if appropriate.
(NEG+Q naht)

(NEG+Q^D nahte)

(NEG+Q nateshwon)

(NEG+Q^A n+anigne)

There are a small number of cases of negative quantifiers attached to nouns nan+ting or other quantifiers (namare). These are tagged NEG+Q+N and NEG+Q+Q, with case if appropriate.
(NEG+Q+N^N nan+ding)

(NEG+Q+Q^N namare)

+AG+TER, NA+TOR (quantifiers)

+AG+TER and NA+TOR are also used as conjunctions, in which case they are tagged CONJ and NEG+CONJ, respectively.


Note especially that (UN)LYTEL and MICEL are consistently tagged Q, even when their meaning is more adjectival than quantificational, i.e. when LYTEL is better interpreted as small and MICEL as great. Distinguishing between the two readings can be quite difficult, especially with plural nouns, and we have not attempted to do so, despite the fact that it creates infelicitous readings in some cases.
(NP-DAT (D^D +tam) (Q^D mycclan) (N^D gewynne))

(NP-DAT (NUM^D anre) (Q^D lytlan) (N^D byrig))

Undeclinable quantifiers FELA, LYT, MA, L+AS

The undeclinable quantifiers FELA, LYT, MA, L+AS are never tagged for case.
(Q fela) 

(Q lyt)

(QR ma) 

(QR l+as) 

A quantifier used in conjunction with a nom/acc/gen plural ambiguous NP can often be taken as either a head with a genitive complement or a modifier of a nom/acc head. In these cases we apply the default rule that undeclinable quantifiers (FELA, LYT, MA, L+AS) take a genitive complement, while all other quantifiers are taken as modifiers. This follows the majority pattern although there are clear examples of the other pattern for both types. See Case with quantifiers.
(NP (Q fela)
    (NP-GEN (N^G suna)))

(NP-NOM (Q^N manige) (N^N suna))

Quantifiers used adverbially

The quantifiers MICEL, LYTEL, HWON/NATESHWON, MA, L+AS, MARE, L+ASSE, M+AST, L+AST, AHT, NAHT, EALL, HW+ATHUGU may be used adverbially. See Case on quantifiers.

Uninflected EALL

When EALL has no overt inflection it is often difficult to distinguish floated quantifier from adverbial use. When EALL immediately precedes an NP with which it potentially agrees, it is taken as part of the NP and is tagged with the same case as the rest of the NP. In all other positions it is tagged only Q with no case. This includes cases when it follows a NP with which it potentially agrees.
(NP-ACC (Q^A all) (N^A woruld+ding))

(NP-NOM (Q^N eall) 
	(NP-GEN (D^G +t+as) (N^G cyninges))
	(N^N r+ad))

(IP-MAT (PP (P +After)
	    (NP-DAT (D^D +tysum) (N^D worde)))
	(NP-NOM (PRO^N he))
	(BEDI wear+d)
	(QP (Q eall))
	(VBN geh+aled))

(IP-MAT (CONJ and)
	(NP-NOM *con*)
	(VBD ar+arde)
	(NP-ACC (D^A +t+at) (N^A mynster))
	(QP (Q eall)) <-- EALL not labelled for case following agreeing noun
	(PP (P be)
	    (NP-DAT (NP-GEN (NR^G Maures))
		    (N^D r+ade))))

	(BEPI is)
	(ADVP-LOC (ADV^L +aghw+ar))
	(QP (Q eall)))

Adverbs (ADV)

Classes of adverbs
Locative adverbs(ADV^L)
Directional adverbs (ADV^D)
Temporal adverbs (ADV^T)
Other adverbs (ADV)
Negative adverbs
Adverbial quantifiers
Adverb vs. preposition
+TA (adverb)

Table of Contents

       ADV       Adverb
       ADVR      Comparative adverb
       ADVS      Superlative adverb
       ADV^T     Temporal adverb
       ADV^L     Locative adverb
       ADV^D     Directional adverb

Classes of Adverbs

Adverbs are tagged ADV. Four classes of adverbs are distinguished:

Locative adverbs (ADV^L)

Locative adverbs indicate location. They may also be used to indicate a point to or from which the action takes place. (she sat there, she went there. We do not distinguish these two uses for adverbs which can be used in both ways; all are tagged as locatives (but see directional adverbs for adverbs used only to indicate direction to/from). The following is a list of the most common locative adverbs; the list is not exhaustive.
Note that forms including HW+AR, such as +AGHW+AR, GEHW+AR, are tagged ADV, not WADV, when they are used as indefinites, as with all wh-indefinites.

Negated forms such as NAHW+AR have a NEG prefix NEG+ADV^L in the usual way.

+T+AR used as a relative pronoun, either alone or in +T+AR +T+AR combination is tagged ADV^L. Some locatives like BEFORAN, B+AFTAN, etc. may also be used temporally and labelled ADV^T. When a more specific use is not clear, they are just labelled ADV.

Directional adverbs (ADV^D)

This set of adverbs is inherently directional. The list is exhaustive. All other adverbs used to indicate the end/start point of an action are labelled as locatives.
Any word ending in -WEARD(ES) (apart from prepositional use) is tagged as an adverb. This includes HAMWEARD(ES). FEOR is included as "place to which" following Campbell. Note that NEAH, on the other hand, is locative.

Indefinite wh-forms like GEHWIDER are tagged ADV not WADV as usual.

Note that +TANON can also be used temporally in which case it is tagged ADV^T.

Temporal adverbs (ADV^T)

Temporal adverbs are tagged ADV^T. The class includes adverbs of duration, point in time, as well as frequency. Adverbs meaning primarily quickly but shading off into right away, immediately, such as HRA+DE, are considered members of the other adverbs class and are tagged ADV. The following are the most common words tagged as temporal adverbs; the list is not exhaustive.
Note that when +T+ARRIHTE is spelled as two words, it is tagged with the PPCME2 numbering system
(ADVP-TMP (ADV^T (ADV^T21 +t+ar) (ADV^T22 rihte)))

HEONAN FOR+T and +TANAN FOR+T as two words are treated as two constituents:
(ADVP-TMP (ADV^T heonan))
(RP for+d)

(ADVP-TMP (ADV^T +tanan))
(RP for+d)

TOD+AG(E), TONIHT, and TOMERGEN(E) written as single words are labelled ADV^T. As two words they are prepositional phrases.
(ADVP-TMP (ADV^T tod+ag))

(ADVP-TMP (ADV^T tod+age))

(PP (P to)
    (NP-ACC (N^A d+ag)))

(PP (P to)
    (NP-DAT (N^D d+ag)))

(ADVP-TMP (ADV^T tomergen))

(ADVP-TMP (ADV^T tomergene))

(PP (P to)
    (NP-ACC (N^A mergen)))

(PP (P to)
    (NP-DAT (N^D mergene)))

HWANNE when indefinite is labelled ADV^T, as usual with indefinites.

Other adverbs (ADV)

All other adverbs, including sentential and manner adverbs, are tagged ADV.

Negative adverbs

Negative adverbs like NA, NAHW+AR, N+AFRE are tagged NEG+ADV following general principles for negative elements.
(NEG+ADV na)

(NEG+ADV^L nahw+ar)

(NEG+ADV^T n+afre)

Adverbial quantifiers

Quantifiers used adverbially, whether indeclinable (MA, L+AS, LYT) or case forms (MICCLUM, EALLES) are always tagged as quantifiers (Q). The inflected forms are also labelled for case.

Adverb vs. preposition

Many words function as both adverbs and prepositions. Such words are always tagged P with a complement and ADV or if they are on the adverbial particles list RP/RPX without. A preposition without a complement is tagged as P rather than ADV or RP/RPX when the complement has been elided.


Although NEAH, GEHENDE, and FEOR act in some ways like prepositions in that they appear to take dative complements, they are also modified by such adverbs as SWA, SWI+DE, etc. in a non-prepositional way. We have therefore tagged these three words as locative adverbs when they do not appear as part of an NP or are not overtly inflected (in which case they are tagged as adjectives). The default tagging for cases where the expected inflection is zero is to take them as adverbs unless they occur within an NP. This includes the copular case. NEAN and FEORRAN are directional, while NEAH/NEAN nearly is simply labelled ADV.
(ADVP-LOC (ADV^L neah))

(ADVP-LOC (ADV^L gehende))

(ADVP-LOC (ADV^L feor))

(ADVP (ADV neah)) <-- nearly

(ADVP-DIR (ADV^D nean))

(ADVP-DIR (ADV^D feorran))


GELICE is normally an adverb (or an inflected adjective), but it occurs in the subordinating construction "GELICE &" three times in Orosius and once in the Vercelli Homilies, where GELICE is tagged as a preposition to make the subordinating nature of the construction clear.


+AREST is tagged ADJS when used as an ordinal number and ADVS^T when used as a temporal adverb.
(NP-NOM (D^N +d+at) (ADJS^N +areste) (N^N godweb))

(NP-NOM (D^N +da) (ADJS^N +arestan) (N^N men))

(ADVP-TMP (ADV^T +arest))


OFER, TO, and FOR when they mean too, very in combination with adjectives or adverbs are labelled ADV.
(ADJP-NOM (ADV ofer) (ADJ^N f+at))

(ADVP-TMP (ADV to) (ADV^T lange))

(ADJP-NOM (ADV to) (ADJ^N god))

(ADVP (ADV for) (ADV wel))

(ADVP-TMP (ADV for) (ADV^T oft))


+TA can be ambiguous between an adverb, preposition and a determiner. See Disambiguating +TA for the algorithm used to distinguish the cases.


HAM is tagged as an adverb, virtually always directional, but occasionally locative.
(ADVP-DIR (ADV^D ham))

(ADVP-LOC (ADV^L ham))

Prepositions (P)

Prepositions with R-pronouns
Prepositions with demonstratives (FOR+TI, FOR+TAN, etc.)
Prepositions and particles
Prepositions taking clausal complements
Modified prepositions (SWA SWA, +TA +TA etc.)
SWA (preposition)
+TY L+AS (+TE)
+TEAH+TE, O+T+TE etc.
GELICE (preposition)

Table of Contents

Prepositions are tagged P and always have a complement. A potential preposition with no complement is labelled as an adverb or an adverbial particle.

Prepositions with R-pronouns

Prepositions cliticized to R-pronouns are labelled ADV+P.
(PP (ADV+P +t+arinne))

(PP (ADV+P t+arbinnan))

(PP (ADV+P +t+aron))

(PP (ADV+P +t+ar+at))

Wh-adverbs cliticized to prepositions are treated the same way.
(WADV+P (WADV+P hw+arto))

When separated they are tagged:
(PP (ADVP-LOC (ADV^L +t+ar))
    (P inne))

Prepositions with demonstratives (FOR+TI, FOR+TAN, etc.)

A preposition may be followed by a demonstrative (FOR +TI, FOR +TAN, FOR +TAT, IN +TAT, WI+T +TAN, etc.) either absolutely, or followed by a clause. In all cases the demonstrative is tagged D plus case. If the preposition and demonstrative are cliticized, the unit is tagged P if it introduces a clause, otherwise ADV. Occasional cases of cliticized preposition and demonstrative with compositional meaning are separated and parsed as PPs. A comment is included to mark the change.
(CP-ADV (P for) (D^I +ty)
	(C 0)
	(IP-SUB ...))

(ADVP (ADV for+dy))            <-- therefore

(PP (P $o+d)                   <-- until that
    (NP-ACC (D^A $+t+at))
    (CODE <TEXT:o+d+t+at>))

(PP (P $+ar)                   <-- before that
    (NP-DAT (D^I $+tan))
    (CODE <TEXT:+ar+tan>))

Prepositions and particles

When one of the list of adverbial particles precedes a preposition immediately, it is tagged as a particle.
(PP (RP up) (P on)
    (NP-DAT (D^D +tam) (N^D w+atere)))

(PP (RP ongean) (P to)
    (NP-DAT (PRO$ his) (ADJ^D ealdan) (N^D lareowe)))

(PP (RP ut) (P of)
    (NP-DAT (D^D +tam) (N^D temple)))

Prepositions taking clausal complements

Prepositions take a clausal complements.
(CP-ADV (P +teah)
	(C +te)
	(IP-SUB ...))

(CP-ADV (P gif)
	(C 0)
	(IP-SUB ...))

(CP-ADV (P for+dan)
	(C +te)
	(IP-SUB ...))

(CP-ADV (P swa)
	(C +t+at)
	(IP-SUB ...))

(CP-ADV (P +ar) (D^I +tan)
	(C +te)
	(IP-SUB ...))

Note that GIF is tagged P when introducing an adverbial clause, but C when introducing an indirect question.

Modified prepositions (SWA SWA, +TA +TA, etc.)

Modifying adverbs such as SWA, EALL, +TA, etc., which commonly appear before prepositions introducing adverbial clauses, can also occur written together with the preposition, SWASWA, EALLSWA, +TA+TA. In these cases the whole unit is labelled P.
(PP (ADV swa) (P swa)
    (CP-CMP ...))

(CP-ADV (ADV^T +ta) (P +ta)
	(C 0)
	(IP-SUB ...))

(PP (P swaswa)
    (CP-CMP ...))

(CP-ADV (P +ta+ta)
	(C 0)
	(IP-SUB ...))

SWA (preposition)

SWA introduces various kinds of adverbial and comparative clauses. It is labelled as a preposition in all cases except as the second SWA in free relatives of the SWA HW- SWA type and some kinds of corelative comparison where it is treated as the complementizer. SWA is also used as an adverb.
(PP (P swa)
    (CP-CMP ...))

(CP-ADV (P swa)
	(C +t+at)
	(IP-SUB ...))

(ADVP (ADV swa))

(CP-FRL (WNP-ACC (ADV swa) (WPRO^A hw+at))
	(C swa)
	(IP-SUB ...))


+TONNE meaning when or introducing comparative clauses is tagged P


When WEARD and TWEONUM are separated from their introductory prepositions (TO/WI+T/etc. with WEARD(ES) and BE with TWEONUM), both parts are tagged P. Together the whole unit is tagged P.
(PP (P wi+d)
    (PP (NR Rome)
	(P weard)))

(PP (P toweard)
    (NP-DAT (D^D +t+am) (N^D feo)))

(PP (P be)
    (PP (NP-DAT (PRO^D him))
        (P tweonum)))

(PP (P betweonum)
    (NP-DAT (PRO^D him)))

+TY/+TE L+AS (+TE)

+TY/+TE L+AS (+TE) unless introducing a subordinate clause is treated parallel to prepositions with demonstratives. +TYL+AS written as one word is tagged P, while +TYL+AS+TE written as a single word is split to allow tagging of +TE as C. A comment is included to indicate the separation (see Word division).
(CP-ADV (D^I +ty) (P l+as)
	(C +te)
	(IP-SUB ...))

(CP-ADV (P +tyl+as)
	(C +te)
	(IP-SUB ...))

(CP-ADV (P $+tyl+as)
	(C $+te)
        (CODE <TEXT:+tyl+as+te>)
	(IP-SUB ...))

+TEAH+TE, O+T+TE etc.

One-word combinations of a subordinating conjunction and +TE introducing a subordinate clause, such as +TEAH+TE although, O+T+TE until are separated and the two constituents tagged in the usual way. A comment is included to indicate the separation.
(CP-ADV (P $+teah)
	(C $+te)
        (CODE <TEXT:+teah+te>)
	(IP-SUB ...))

(CP-ADV (P $o+t)
	(C $+te)
        (CODE <TEXT:o+t+te>)
	(IP-SUB ...))

Notice that this policy does not apply to +T+ATTE, which is always tagged C in its entirety.


When TOMIDDES, BESU+TAN, etc. are written as single words, they are tagged as prepositions when they take a complement and as adverbs when used absolutely. When written separately they are tagged literally according to their constituent parts, whether used absolutely or taking a complement.
(CP-ADV (P mid) (D^I +ty)
	(C +te)
	(IP-SUB ...))

(PP (P prep) (ADV adverb)
    (NP ...))

(PP (P to) (N^G middes)
    (NP ...))

(PP (P be) (ADV su+tan)
    (NP-DAT (N^D ...)))

(PP (P wi+t) (ADV nor+tan)
    (NP-ACC (N^A ...)))

(PP (P Be) (ADV su+tan)
    (NP-DAT (D^D +t+am) (N^D mu+tan)))

(PP (P besu+tan)
    (NP-DAT (D^D +t+am) (N^D mu+tan)))

(PP (P be) (ADV su+tan)
    (NP-DAT (D^D +t+am) (N^D mu+tan)))

(ADVP-DIR (ADV^D besu+tan))      <--  to the south

(PP (P be) 
    (ADVP (ADV su+tan)))

MIDDAN in ON/T0 MIDDAN is taken as MIDDUM with masc/neuter nouns and included in the NP. With feminines it is labelled ADJ and treated as part of a compound preposition, whether it precedes or follows the NP.
(PP (P to)
    (NP-DAT (ADJ^D middan) (D^D +tam) (N^D wyrhtum)))

(PP (P to)
    (NP-DAT (D^D +tam) (N^D feldan) (ADJ^D middan)))

(PP (P on) (ADJ middan)
          (NP-DAT (D^D +t+are) (N^D s+a)))

(PP (P on)
          (NP-DAT (D^D +t+are) (N^D s+a))
          (ADJ middan))


SAM ... SAM meaning whether ... or is tagged P.
( (CODE <T06650004000,40>)
          (C 0)
          (IP-SUB (ADVP *T*-1)
                  (NP-NOM (Q^N +alc) (N^N wyrd))
                  (BEPI beo+d)
                  (ADJP-NOM-PRD (ADJ^N god))
                  (, ,)
                  (CP-ADV (P sam)
			  (C 0)
			  (IP-SUB (NP-NOM (PRO^N heo))
				  (NP-DAT (N^D mannum))
				  (ADJP-NOM-PRD (ADJ^N god))
				  (VBPS +tince)))
                  (, ,)
                  (CP-ADV (P sam)
			  (C 0) 
			  (IP-SUB (NP-NOM (PRO^N heo))
				  (NP-DAT (PRO^D him))
				  (ADJP-NOM-PRD (ADJ^N yfel))
				  (VBPS +tince))))
          (. .)) (ID coboeth,BoHead:40.49))


BUTON is tagged P, even when it means but and seems to function as a conjunction. BUTON can also function as a focus particle.


GELICE is normally an adverb (or an inflected adjective), but it occurs in the subordinating construction "GELICE &" as though three times in Orosius and once in the Vercelli Homilies, where GELICE is tagged P to make the subordinating nature of the construction clear.
(CP-ADV (P gelice) (CONJ &)
	(C 0)
	(IP-SUB ...))

(NODE (CP-ADV (P for) (D^I +ton)
	      (C +te)
	      (IP-SUB (NP-NOM (NP-GEN (N^G elpendes))
			      (N^N hyd))
		      (MDP wile)
		      (VB drincan)
		      (NP (N w+atan))
		      (, ,)
		      (CP-ADV (P gelice) (CONJ &)
			      (C 0) 
			      (IP-SUB (NP-NOM (N^N spynge))
				      (VBPI de+d)))))
      (ID coorosiu,Or_5:

Determiners (D)

Indefinite AN
Disambiguating +TA

Table of Contents

All forms of SE and +TES are tagged D plus appropriate case tag according to the usual rules. This includes when used alone and forms of SE used as relative pronouns.

(D^N se)

(D^A +tone)

(D^G +tisses)

(D^D +t+am)

Indefinite AN

Although AN can sometimes be interpreted as an indefinite determiner, it is always tagged as a cardinal number.

Disambiguating +TA

In some cases, +TA is ambiguous between an temporal adverb, a preposition introducing a clause, and a determiner. In difficult cases the ambiguity is resolved as follows.


Likewise, +T+AT can be ambiguous between a determiner functioning as wh-word and a complementiser in relative-clause constructions. By default, +T+AT is treated as a determiner in these cases if it matches the antecedent in gender and number, and as a complementizer otherwise, except in non-restrictive glossing relatives where the relative pronoun is invariantly +T+AT regardless of the number/gender of the antecedant. In these cases +T+AT is always treated as the relative pronoun. In addition +T+AT is always treated as the complementizer in temporal and locative relative clauses.
(C +t+at) <-- complementizer

(D^N +t+at) <-- determiner or relative pronoun

Numbers, cardinal (NUM)

Case on numbers
Weak ANA

Table of Contents

All cardinal numbers except those in foreign language sequences are tagged NUM whether they are written out or in number form. Roman numerals are labelled NUM except in conjunction with other foreign words. HEALF is a tagged as a number except when it means side.

(NP-NOM (NUM^N An) (N^N woruldcynincg))


(NUMP (NUM eahta) (CONJ &) (NUM XX))

(NP-ACC (NUM III) (N^A niht))

(NP (FW VII) (FW kalendas) (FW Mai))


Case on numbers

Numbers up to three are generally inflected, while those over three generally are not. Therefore the numbers one, two, and three, are given case labels except when part of compound numbers. Numbers over three are only labelled for case if they are overtly inflected. This includes HUND and +TUSEND.
(NP-NOM (NUM^N An) (N^N woruldcynincg)  <--- inflected numerals

(NP-NOM (PRO^N hi) (Q^N ealle) (NUM^N +try))

(NP-ACC (D^A +disne) (NUM^A enne) (NR^A God))

(NP-DAT (NUM^D twam) (N^D fotum))

(NP-DAT (NUM feower) (N^D fotum))

(NP-DAT (NUMP-DAT (NUM^D +trym) (CONJ and) (NUM^D +drittigum)) <-- inflected compound numeral  
	(N^D mannum))

(NUMP (NUM twa) (CONJ &) (NUM twentig))  <--- uninflected compound numeral

(NUMP (NUM twa) (CONJ and) (NUM hundseofontig))

(NUMP (NUM nigon) (NUM hund))  

(NP (NUMP (NUM +treo) (NUM hund))

Weak ANA

ANA, the weak form of AN, is tagged as a focus particle.


Wh-pronoun (WPRO)
Wh-adjective (WADJ)
Wh-adverb (WADV)

Table of Contents

        WPRO            Wh-pronoun
        WADJ            Wh-adjective
        WADV            Wh-adverb
        WQ              WHETHER (question particle)

Wh-pronoun (WPRO)

Forms of HWA heading a wh-NP are labelled WPRO. HWILC and HW+A+DER when it means which of two are tagged as wh-adjectives in all cases.
(WPRO^N hwa)    (WPRO^N hw+at)
(WPRO^A hw+ane) (WPRO^A hw+at)
(WPRO^G hw+as)
(WPRO^D hw+am)

Wh-adjective (WADJ)

HWILC and HW+A+DER in the meaning which of two are tagged WADJ whether they modify a noun or not (as with other adjectives). Note that HWILC may also be used as a wh-indefinite, in which case it is tagged Q and HW+A+DER is tagged WQ when it introduces a yes/no whether question.
(WADJ^N hwilc)

(WADJ^A hwilcne)

(WADJ^N hw+a+ter)

(WADJ^A hw+a+ter) 

(WADJ^A hw+a+derne)

(WADJP-NOM (WADJ^N hwilc))

(WNP-NOM (WADJ^N hwilc))

(WNP-ACC (WADJ^A hwilce) (N^A mihte))

(WNP-DAT (WADJ^D hwylcere) (N^D m+ag+de))

WHICH is tagged as a wh-determiner (WD) in the PPCME2.

Wh-adverbs (WADV)

Wh-adverbs (HU, HWONNE, HW+AR and HWI) are tagged WADV. Note that +TA and +TONNE are tagged P when introducing a subordinate clause (see Prepositions) and +T+AR is always tagged as an locative adverb even when acting as a relative pronoun. HW+AR and HWONNE may also be used as a wh-indefinites in which case they are tagged ADV^L and ADV^T respectively.
(WADVP-LOC (WADV^L hw+ar))


(WADVP-TMP (WADV^T hwonne))

(WADVP (WADV hwi))

(ADVP-LOC (ADV^L hw+ar))  <-- "anywhere"

(ADVP-TMP (ADV^T hwonne)) <-- "sometime" 

When attached to a preposition the unit is tagged WADV+P (one eg.)
(WADV+P (WADV+P hw+arto))


When introducing a WHETHER question, HW+A+DER is tagged WQ; when it acts as a wh-adjective meaning which of two it is tagged as a wh-adjective WADJ. Note that GIF (=whether) in indirect questions is tagged as a complementizer.
(WQ hw+a+ter)

(WADJ^N hw+a+ter)


SW+A+TER, the contracted form of SWA HW+A+TER, is labelled WADJ like HW+A+TER.
(WADJ^N sw+a+ter)

(WADJP-NOM (ADV swa) (WADJ^N hw+a+ter))


Categories of Verbs
Modal verbs (MD, etc.)
Auxiliary verbs (AX, etc.)
HAVE and BE (HV, BE, etc.)
Lexical verbs (VB, etc.)
Particle verbs (RP+VB, etc.)
Mood (indicative, subjunctive, imperative)
Participles (VAG, VBN, etc.)
Infinitives (VB, etc.)
Inflected infinitives (VB^D, etc.)
Infinitive marker TO (TO)

Table of Contents

Categories of Verbs

Modal verbs (MD, etc.)

        MD          infinitive
        MDI         imperative
        MDPI        present indicative
        MDPS        present subjunctive
        MDP         present tense (ambiguous subjunctive/indicative)
        MDDI        past indicative
        MDDS        past subjunctive
        MDD         past tense (ambiguous subjunctive/indicative)

The following verbs are always tagged as modals, whether used with an infinitive or as main verbs.
          (NP-DAT (PRO^D him))
          (NP-NOM (NEG+Q^N nan) (N^N +ting))
          (VB +atfleon)
          (NEG ne)
          (MDPI m+ag)  <-- modal use 
          (. .)) (ID coaelive,+ALS_[Christmas]:43.31))

( (CODE <T03020003200,72>)
  (IP-MAT (NP-GEN (PRO^G His))
          (NP-NOM (PRO^N we))
          (MDPI magon)
          (VB wundrian)
          (. ,)) (ID coaelive,+ALS_[Christmas]:72.58))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ and)
              (NP-NOM (PRO^N hi))
              (NP-ACC (PRO$ heore) (ADJ^A diglan) (N^A d+ada))
              (NP (PRO eow))
              (VB bedyrnan)
              (NEG ne)
              (MDDI mihton)
              (. .))  (ID coaelive,+ALS_[Vincent]:137.7893))

                  (MDPI cann)  <-- main verb use of modal
                  (NP-NOM (PRO^N ic))
                  (NP (PRO eow))
                  (PP (P to)
                      (NP-DAT (ADJ^D so+tan))))
      (ID colwstan1,+ALet_2_[Wulfstan_1]:142.197))

(NODE (IP-MAT (NP-ACC (Q^A Sume) (N^A +ting))
              (NP-NOM (PRO^N heo))
              (MDP wyle)
              (. ,))
      (ID coaelive,+ALS_[Christmas]:225.180))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ ac)
          (NP-NOM (PRO^N he))
          (NEG ne)
          (MDD cu+te)
          (NP (PRO$ his) (N geleafan))
          (. ,))
      (ID coaelive,+ALS_[Basil]:295.646))

The verb AGAN, however, is only tagged as a modal when it is used with a TO infinitive, meaning have to or ought to.
              (MDD ahte)
              (IP-INF (NP-ACC *T*-4)
                      (TO to)
                      (HV^D habbanne)
                      (PP (P to)
                          (NP-DAT (NUM xii) (N^D mon+tum)))
                      (PP (P of)
                          (NP-DAT (D^D +d+are) (N^D scire)))))
      (ID cochronE,ChronE_[Plummer]:1085.26.2811)) 

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-NOM (N^N sacerd))
              (MDPI ah)
              (IP-INF (NP-ACC *T*-2)
                      (TO to)
                      (VB^D donne))
              (NP-DAT-ADT (N^D folce))
              (PP (P to)
                  (NP (N +tearfe)))
              (, ,)
              (CP-ADV (P gif)
                      (C 0)
                      (IP-SUB (NP-NOM (PRO^N he))
                              (NP-DAT (PRO$ his) (NR^D Drihtne))
                              (VBPI gecwem+d)
                              (PP (P mid)
                                  (NP-DAT (N^D rihte))))))
      (ID coinspolX,WPol_2.1.1_[Jost]:130.180)) 

The present forms of SCULAN are distinguished for mood as follows. All forms with an -EN ending are labelled subjunctive (MDPS) as well as any form with a -Y- base vowel, no matter what the ending. All other forms (base vowel -EO-/-O-/-U- and non -EN ending) are labelled indicative (MDPI). Note that this approach may overgeneralize the indicative cases somewhat as a -U- base vowel is also possible in the subjunctive; that is, SCULON/SCULAN/SCULUN while more likely to be indicative, may also be subjunctive.
(MDPS scylen)

(MDPS sculen)

(MDPS scylon)

(MDPI sculon)

(MDPI sceolun)

Note that "modal" is a lexical category in the YCOE (apart from AGAN), unlike in the PPCME2, where modals used independently are tagged as lexical verbs.

Auxiliary verbs (AX etc.)

        AX          infinitive
        AXI         imperative
        AXPI        present indicative
        AXPS        present subjunctive
        AXP         present tense (ambiguous subjunctive/indicative)
        AXPH        present tense (ambiguous subjunctive/imperative)
        AXDI        past indicative
        AXDS        past subjunctive
        AXD         past tense (ambiguous subjunctive/indicative)
        AXG         present participle
        AXN         past participle

The following verbs may be tagged as auxiliaries. Unlike the modals, these verbs are only tagged AX when used with a bare infinitive, or (?marginally) with a participle. When followed by a TO infinitive they are labelled as lexical verbs.

( (IP-MAT (ADVP-TMP (ADV^T +ta))
          (AXDI began)
          (NP-NOM (D^N se) (N^N dema))
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV^T eft))
          (NP-ACC (PRO^A hi))
          (VB herigan)
          (. ,)) (ID coaelive,+ALS[Forty_Soldiers]:55.2504))

( (CODE <T03190010900,348>)
  (IP-MAT (NP-NOM (NR^N Hieu))
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV^T +ta))
          (AXD eode)
          (PP (P to)
              (NP (PRO$ his) (N gereorde)))
          (VB sittan)
          (. ,)) (ID coaelive,+ALS_[Book_of_Kings]:348.3924))

( (CODE )
          (AXDI ongunnon)
          (NP-NOM (PRO$ heora) (N^N magas))
          (QP-DAT-ADT (Q^D mycclum))
          (VB behreowsian)
          (CP-THT (C +t+at)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-NOM (PRO^N hi))
                          (ADVP-TMP (ADV^T +afre))
                          (NP-ACC (D^A +ta) (N^A martyras))
                          (VB misl+aran)
                          (MDDI woldon)))
          (. ,)) (ID coaelive,+ALS_[Sebastian]:118.1282))

( (CODE )
          (AXDI com)
          (NP-NOM (NR^N Gallicanus))
          (ADVP (ADV eac))
          (PTP-NOM (PP (P to) 
                       (NP-DAT (NR^D Gode)))
                   (VBN^N gebogen))
          (. ,)) (ID coaelive,+ALS[Agnes]:336.1944))

Utan (UTP)

UTAN used to introduce imperative or hortatory clauses (let us...), is tagged UTP.
( (CODE <T03020005700,124>)
  (IP-MAT (UTP Uton)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV^T nu))
          (VB behealden)
          (NP-ACC (D^A +ta) (ADJ^A wundorlican) (N^A swyftnysse)
                  (NP-GEN (D^G +t+are) (N^G sawle)))
          (. :)) (ID coaelive,+ALS_[Christmas]:124.101))

              (UTP uton)
              (ADVP (ADV swa) (ADV +teah))
              (VB biddan)
              (NP-ACC (D^A +tas) (N^A bena))
              (PP (P +at)
                  (NP-DAT (NR^D Gode)))
              (. .)) (ID coaelive,+ALS_[Basil]:515.819))

HAVE and BE (HV, BE, etc.)

The verb HAVE
        HV          infinitive
        HVI         imperative
        HVPI        present indicative
        HVPS        present subjunctive
        HVP         present tense (ambiguous subjunctive/indicative)
	HVPH        present tense (ambiguous subjunctive/imperative)
        HVDI        past indicative
        HVDS        past subjunctive
        HVD         past tense (ambiguous subjunctive/indicative)
        HAG         present participle
        HVN         past participle

The verb BE
        BE          infinitive
        BEI         imperative
        BEPI        present indicative
        BEPS        present subjunctive
        BEP         present tense (ambiguous subjunctive/indicative)
	BEPH        present tense (ambiguous subjunctive/imperative)
        BEDI        past indicative
        BEDS        past subjunctive
        BED         past tense (ambiguous subjunctive/indicative)
        BAG         present participle
        BEN         past participle

The forms of BE and HAVE are distinguished from all other verbs, but no distinction is made in the tag for auxiliary and main verb use for BE and HAVE.

All forms of BEON, WESAN, and (GE)WEOR+DAN are labelled with BE tags regardless of meaning.

( (IP-MAT-SPE (ADJP-NOM-PRD (ADJ^N Wundorlic))
              (BEPI is)
              (NP-NOM (NR^N God))
              (PP (P on)
                  (NP-DAT (PRO$ his) (N^D halgum)))
              (. ;)) (ID copreflives,+ALS_[Pref]:19.10))

( (CODE <T03020002000,47>)
  (IP-MAT (ADVP-TMP (ADV^T Symble))
          (NP-NOM (PRO^N he))
          (BEPI bi+d)
          (VAG gyfende)
          (. ,)) (ID coaelive,+ALS_[Christmas]:47.33))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ and)
              (NP-GEN-1 (D^G +t+as))
              (NEG ne)
              (BEPI wur+d)
              (NP-NOM (NP-GEN *ICH*-1)
                      (NEG+Q^N nan) (N^N ende))
              (. .)) (ID coaelive,+ALS_[Sebastian]:77.1255))

( (IP-MAT (NP-NOM-x *exp*)
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV^T +da))
          (BEDI gewear+d)      <-- GEWEOR+TAN = happen
          (NP-DAT (PRO$ his) (N^D +tegnum))
          (CP-THT-x (C +t+at)
                    (IP-SUB (NP-NOM (PRO^N hi))
                            (NP-ACC (PRO^A hine))
                            (VBDI acwealdon)))
          (. ,)) (ID coaelive,+ALS_[Book_of_Kings]:456.3996))

All forms of HABBAN are tagged HV.

( (CODE <T03010000800,25>)
  (IP-MAT (NP-NOM (NUM^N An) (N^N woruldcynincg))
          (HVPI h+af+d)
          (NP (NP (Q fela)
                  (NP-GEN (N^G +tegna)))
              (CONJP (CONJ and)
                     (NP-ACC (ADJ^A mislice) (N^A wicneras))))
          (. ;)) (ID copreflives,+ALS_[Pref]:25.14))

( (CODE <T03020003600,84>)
          (HVPI habba+d)
          (NP (PRO eow))
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV^T oft))
          (VBN ges+ad)
          (NP-ACC (PRO$^A eowerne) (N^A geleafan) 
                  (PP (P be)
                      (NP-DAT (D^D +t+are) (ADJ^D halgan) (N^D +drynnysse))))
          (. ;)) (ID AelfLives,+ALS_[Pref]:25.14))

Note that DO is tagged as a lexical verb in the YCOE and not given a special tag as in the PPCME2.

Lexical verbs (VB, etc.)

        VB          infinitive
        VBI         imperative
        VBPI        present indicative
        VBPS        present subjunctive
        VBP         present tense (ambiguous subjunctive/indicative)
	VBPH        present tense (ambiguous subjunctive/imperative)
        VBDI        past indicative
        VBDS        past subjunctive
        VBD         past tense (ambiguous subjunctive/indicative)
        VAG         present participle
        VBN         past participle

All lexical verbs have labels beginning with VB.

( (CODE <T03010000100,1>)
  (IP-MAT (NP-NOM (NR^N +Alfric)) 
          (VBPI gret)
          (ADVP (ADV eadmodlice))
          (NP-ACC (NR^A +A+delwerd) (N^A ealdorman))
  (ID copreflives,+ALS_[Pref]:1.2))

	      (NP-ACC (N^A leahtres)) 
	      (VBPS forbuge))
      (ID coaelive,+ALS_[Christmas]:155.123))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ and)
              (NP-NOM (PRO^N ic))
              (VBP singe)
              (PP (P mid)
                  (NP-DAT (N^D mode)))
              (. .)) (ID coaelive,+ALS_[Christmas]:193.153))

( (CODE <T03350007400,264>)
  (IP-MAT (NP-NOM (D^N +Da) (ADJ^N re+tan) (N^N cwelleras))
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV^T +ta))
          (ADVP (ADV ra+te))
          (ADVP (ADV swa))
          (VBDI dydon)
          (. ,)) (ID coaelive,+ALS_[Vincent]:264.7973))

	      (RP+VBDS underfenge) 
	      (NP (ADJ deorwur+de) (N gyrlan)))
      (ID coaelive,+ALS_[Thomas]:155.7652))

( (CODE <T03340004100,151>)
  (IP-MAT (PP (P +After)
              (NP-DAT (D^D +tysum) (N^D wordum)))
          (NP-NOM (PRO^N he))
          (VBD efste)
          (PP (P to)
              (NP-DAT (D^D +tam) (N^D cwearterne)))
          (. ,)) (ID coaelive,+ALS_[Thomas]:151.7648))

Note that an inflected infinitive following TO is tagged as a dative form VB^D (see Inflected infinitives).
	    (VB^D gewyssienne))

Particle verbs (RP+VB, etc.)

Verbs with a particle cliticized to the beginning are tagged RP+VB, etc. All verbs beginning with a form on the adverbial particles list have a tag beginning RP+, with the following exceptions:
(RP+VBPI onliht)

(RP+VBDI underf+ang)

(RP+VBN oferswi+dod)

(RP+VB oferstigan)

(RP+VAG^N for+dst+appende)

Mood (indicative, subjunctive, imperative)

The following four categories are distinguished:

Mood (indicative or subjunctive) is labelled on verbs based on the form of the verb itself and not on context. Only unambiguous forms are labelled; ambiguous forms (e.g., past tense of 3rd sg. weak verbs in -EDE/-ODE) are unmarked.

The following forms are always indicative/subjunctive ambiguous:

Unlike in the PPCME2, in the YCOE unambiguous subjunctive verb forms are distinguished from unambiguous indicative forms.
(VBPI forgif+d)

(VBPI wur+ta+d)

(VBDI stod)

(VBDI awendon)

(VBPS becume)  <-- with non 1st sg subject

(VBP becume)   <-- with 1st sg subject

(VBPS +toligen)

(VBP secge)    <-- with 1st sg subject or preceding plural pronoun

(VBPS secge)   <-- all other contexts

(VBDS ongunnen)

(VBD onhagode)

(VBD come)     <-- with 2nd sg subject

(VBDS come)    <-- all other contexts

(VBPH wite)

(BEPH beo)

(VBI awurp)

The past tense plural is difficult to deal with. While -ON/-AN/-UN correlates more with indicative than subjunctive (and vice versa for subjunctive), overall there is some overlap in both directions. Rather than label all past tense plurals as ambiguous, however, we have labelled -ON/-AN/-UN as indicative and -EN as subjunctive in all cases, even when the analysis is extremely unlikely in context.

In the present plural (of non-preterite-present verbs), any vowel plus -N is labelled subjunctive. Sometimes this is dependent on the tense context, as the present subjunctive and past plural can have the same root vowel (e.g., SCINEN, SCINON).

(VBPS scinen)

(VBPS scinon)   <-- present context

(VBDI scinon)   <-- past context

The imperative/subjunctive ambiguity affects the following forms: DO, GA, WITE, BEO (and derivatives), when in a context where the subject is 2nd singular. Elsewhere they are clear subjunctives. For all other verbs the imperative and subjunctive are distinguished by form. Subjunctive forms apparently used as imperatives are distinguished in the parsing by the presence of a *pro* subject.
(VBPH do)

(VBI bide)  <-- BIDDAN pray

(VBPS bidde) 

(VBI axa)

(VBPS axie)

Participles (VAG, VBN, etc)

Only overt case is marked on participles that are part of the main verb sequence. Therefore the following forms do not have a case label in this context.

When used as modifiers or attributively, all participles except GEHATEN, GECIGEN, and other verbs used in naming are labelled with the case of the head they modify. Note that this is so even in those few cases in which the participle does not inflect appropriately.

Unlike in the PPCME2, verbal and adjectival use of the present and past participles is not distinguished; that is, they are both tagged VAG or VBN (or HAG/HVN, etc).

(NP-ACC (D^A +ta) (VAG^A lifiendan) (N^A godas))

(NP-ACC (VAG^A sw+agende) (N^A fyr))

(NP-DAT (D^D +dam) (VAG^D lifigendan) (NR^D Drihtne))

A form used adjectively is labelled as a participle if a related verb is listed in Clark Hall. When no related verb is listed the form is tagged as an adjective.

(VBN slegen)        (ADJ^N unofslegen)

(VBN geendod)	    (ADJ^N ungeendod)

(VAG^N berende)	    (ADJ^N unberende)

(ADJ^A yfelh+abbende)  <-- no verb YFELHABBAN

(ADJ^A la+twende)      <-- no verb LA+TWENDAN

Present participles are only tagged as nouns when used substantively if the form is listed as a noun in Clark Hall (regardless of whether a related verb exists); otherwise it is tagged as a particple and treated as an adjective used substantively.
(N^N swelgend) 

(N^N h+alend)

(N^N forest+append)

(N^D scyppende)

(N^D alysende)

(N^N d+alnimende)

Infinitives (VB, etc)

Inflected infinitives (VB^D, etc.)

Infinitives with -NE added to the base form are labelled with the infinitive tag VB, HV, etc. ^D.
(VB awriten)

(VB gesettan)

(VB onbryrdan)

(VB^D getrymmenne)

(VB^D gewilnienne)

(VB^D geneal+acene) <-- with simplified -NN-

(VB^D +tingiende))  <-- occasionally spelling with -ND-

Infinitive marker TO (TO)

TO used with an infinitive is tagged TO. It is followed by both plain and inflected infinitives, although far more commonly by the latter
(IP-INF (TO to)
	(VB l+adan))

(IP-INF (TO to)
	(VB^D gewyssienne))

(IP-INF (TO to)
	(VB^D gewilnienne)

Complementizers (C)

SWA in free relative clauses
GIF in indirect questions

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All complementizers are labelled C.


+T+AT, +T+ATTE and +TE introducing any kind of subordinate clause are tagged C. +T+AT introducing a relative clause, however, is taken as the relative pronoun (and thus tagged as a determiner) if it matches the antecedant for number/gender/case, or if it is in a non-restrictive glossing relative. In any other case it is taken as the complementizer and tagged C.

Unlike +TEAH+TE and O+T+TE, it is not clear that +T+AT+TE is best analyzed as +T+AT plus complementizer +TE, since it may introduce that-complements, adverbial and degree clauses as well as relatives; it is therefore treated as a simple alternative to +T+AT and never split, even in relatives.

SWA in free relative clauses and corelative comparatives

SWA is tagged C in free relatives of the SWA HW- SWA type and in some corelative comparisons.

GIF in indirect questions

When GIF introduces indirect questions, it is tagged C rather than P as when it introduces adverbial clauses.
( (IP-MAT (NP-NOM *con*)
          (MDD wolde)
          (VB gewytan)
          (CP-QUE (C gif)
                  (IP-SUB (NP-NOM (PRO$ his) (N^N w+apnu))
                          (VBDI coman)))
          (. .)) (ID coaelive,+ALS_[Basil]:264.621))

Conjunctions (CONJ)

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         CONJ         Conjunction
         NEG+CONJ     Negative conjunction

The following are tagged CONJ, or NEG+CONJ if negative, when used as conjunctions:

When there is more than one conjunction, (e.g., +AG+TER GE...GE), all are tagged CONJ.

(CONJ &)


(NEG+CONJ na+ter) (NEG+CONJ ne)

(CONJ +ag+ter) (CONJ ge)

+AG+TER/NA+TER are also tagged as quantifiers.

SWA is also tagged as a preposition, adverb or complementizer.

NE is also tagged as sentential negation (NEG).

Negation (NEG)

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The negative particle NE is tagged NEG. Contractions of NE and verb forms, adverbs and quantifiers are tagged NEG+-.

When NE is used as a conjunction, it is tagged NEG+CONJ. In clauses with only one NE where NE could be a conjunction or negation, it is tagged as negation (NEG) if it immediately precedes the finite verb and as a conjunction (NEG+CONJ) if it does not.

NA is tagged as an negative adverb (NEG+ADV). NE not immediately preceding the finite verb (NEG) or sentence initial (NEG+CONJ) is taken as variant of NA and tagged NEG+ADV.

(NEG ne)        <-- negative particle preceding finite verb

(NEG+CONJ ne)   <-- negative conjunction

(NEG+ADV na)    <-- negative adverb

(NEG+ADV ne)    <-- NE as a variant of NA

Adverbial particles (RP)

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Adverbial particles are tagged RP. The following is an exhaustive list of all words tagged as particles except when they take a complement, in which case they are tagged as prepositions. Preceding another preposition, they are tagged as particles (see Prepositions and particles).

When a particle is cliticized to the beginning of a verb, the unit is tagged RP+-. With the following verbs initial ON- is not labelled as particle.
(RP+VBPI onliht)

(RP+VB understandan)

(VB onfon)

Focus particles (FP)

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The following may be labelled as focus particles.

HURU and FUR+TUM are always labelled FP.

ANA, the weak form of AN, is tagged as a focus particle, following Mitchell (1985:536) who takes ANA as an indeclinable adverbial constituent which acts as a focus particle.

( (IP-MAT (CONJ ac)
          (NP-NOM (D^N se) (N^N man) (FP ana))
          (VBPI g+a+d)
          (ADVP-DIR (ADV^D uprihte))
          (. ,))
      (ID AelfLives,+ALS_[Christmas]:56.68)) 

ANA is tagged FP in all cases except the following, where it is tagged NUM with case if appropriate.
In many cases ANA may as well, or often even better, be taken as a secondary predicate meaning alone. It is difficult to distinguish between he alone/only he prayed and he prayed alone, both are constructed with ANA, since if the latter is true, so in some sense is the former, and the difference depends on pragmatics. Positional differences may be significant here but this cannot be determined with certainty without more study. We therefore label all cases of ANA FP except the two noted above.
(NODE (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-NOM (PRO^N ic)) <-- I prayed alone
                  (NP-RFL (PRO me))
                  (FP ana)
                  (VBP gebidde))
      (ID coaelive,+ALS[Agnes]:198.1845))

BUTAN/BUTE is tagged as a focus particle in the NE...BUTAN construction. It also occurs a few times without the NE.

		  (NEG+HVPI nabba+d)
		  (ADVP-LOC (ADV^L her))
		  (NP-ACC (NP-ACC (FP butun) (NUM fif) (N^A hlafas))
			  (CONJP (CONJ &)
				 (NX-ACC (NUM^A twegen) (N^A fixas)))))
      (ID cowsgosp,Mt_[WSCp]:14.17.940))

( (CODE )
  (IP-MAT (NEG Ne)
          (VBDI sp+ac)
          (NP-NOM (PRO^N he))
          (ADVP (NEG+ADV na))
          (NP-ACC (FP butan) (N^A bispelle))
          (. ;)) (ID cowsgosp,Mk_[WSCp]:4.34.2419))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-NOM (D^N +da) (N^N gebro+dra))
              (NEG+HVDI n+afdon)
              (NP-ACC (FP buton) (NUM fif) (N^A hlafas))
              (PP (P to)
                  (NP (NP-GEN-RFL (PRO^G heora) (Q^G ealra))
                      (N gereorde))))
       (ID cocathom2,+ACHom_II,_11:100.293.2125))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-NOM (D^N se) (N^N wer))
	      (MDPI mot)
	      (HV habban)
	      (NP-ACC (FP butan) (NUM^A an) (N^A wif)))
      (ID cochdrul,ChrodR_1:65.1.881))

Interjections (INTJ)

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In general the INTJ tag is used only if a word has no other use than as an interjection. When words with other functions as well are used as interjections, they are still tagged with their primary POS tag, and not with INTJ. Thus, HW+AT, is tagged WPRO (without case) when used as an interjection. Adverbs which are also used as interjections (EFNE, +TONNE, HURU, etc.) are always tagged as adverbs since it is too difficult to consistently distinguish adverbial from interjection use. Finally GE, although it has other functions as a pronoun and conjunction, is tagged INTJ in interjection function (i.e., when it means yes, yea. The following are common interjections.

(INTJ amen)            <-- always an interjection

(INTJP (WPRO hw+at))   <-- HW+AT in interjection use

(ADVP (ADV efne))      <-- may be used as an interjection, 
                           but never tagged as such

Foreign words (FW)

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Everything (words, symbols, numbers, etc.) except punctuation in foreign language sequences is labelled FW.

Outside of foreign language sequences, foreign names (PAULINUS, etc.) are not tagged FW, but NR.

Latin liturgical terms (PATER NOSTER, TE DEUM, etc.) are tagged FW, except when they follow English inflectional patterns, in which case they are tagged N.

(NP (FW pater) (FW noster))

(NP-DAT (D^D +tam) (N^D paternostre))

Unknown or problematic words (XX)

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Unknown or problematic words are tagged XX. The majority of these are either partial words arising from textual problems, or the part of speech of the word is indeterminate because of textual problems.

(NODE (X (CONJ o+d+de)
	 (CODE )
	 (NP-NOM (PRO^N hit))
	 (XX $+afr)     <-- partial words
	 (XX $+ade))
      (ID codocu2,Ch_1445_[HarmD_18]:33.55))

( (X (CODE )
     (XX $+t+at)        <-- indeterminate part-of-speech
     (IP-SUB (NP-NOM (PRO^N $he))
             (ADVP (ADV $swa))
             (MDD $mihte)
             (VB cy+dan)
             (PP (P be)
                 (NP (NP-GEN (NR^G Cristes))
                     (N godcundnysse))))
     (. .)) (ID coaelhom,+AHom_1:1.5))

Word division

Words that are always separated
Words given compound tags
Words treated as written

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Words that are always separated

In some case it is necessary to physically separate the parts of a single written unit in order to obtain the correct parse. The following combinations are always separated.
  • subject pronouns cliticised to verb forms. In some cases separated forms are emended for clarity, e.g. SCEALTU will be separated and emended to SCEALT TU. Such emendations are always marked with the emendation sign ($) and a comment.
    (VBPI $cymst) 
    (NP-NOM (PRO^N $tu))
    (CODE <TEXT:cymstu>)
    (VBPI $flitst)
    (NP-NOM (PRO^N $+du))
    (CODE <TEXT:flits+du>)
  • one-word combinations of a subordinating conjunction plus +TE introducing a subordinate clause, e.g. +TEAH+TE, O+T+TE.
    (CP-ADV (P $+teah) 
    	(C $+te)
            (CODE <TEXT:+teah+te>)
    	(IP-SUB ...))
  • SE+TE (or other relative pronoun) introducing relative clauses
    (NP-NOM (D^N $se)
    	(CP-REL (WNP 0)
    		(C $+te)
                    (CODE <TEXT:se+te>)
    		(IP-SUB ...)))
    (CP-REL (WNP-NOM (D^N $se)
    	(C +te)
            (CODE <TEXT:se+te>)
    	(IP-SUB ...))
  • a pronoun plus SELF
    (NP-DAT (PRO^D $him)
    	(ADJP-DAT (ADJ^D $sylfum))
            (CODE <TEXT:himsylfum>))

Words given compound tags

Compound tagging using a plus sign is used in two cases:

  • cliticized negation
    (NEG+MDDI noldon)
    (NEG+CONJ ne)
    (NEG+ADV^T n+afre)
    (NEG+Q naht)
    (NEG+VBPI nat)
    (NEG+BEPI Nis)
  • particle plus verb form
    (RP+VBPI onliht)
    (RP+VB wi+dgripan)
    (RP+VBN oferswi+dod)
    (RP+VAG^N for+dst+appende)

Words treated as written

The complex morphological structure of forms other than those discussed in the previous section is not marked. Phrases such as ON SUNDRUM, TO MIDDES, FOR +TAM are tagged literally when written apart and taken as a whole when written as one word.
(PP (P tomiddes)
    (NP-DAT (D^D +tam) (N^D mu+tan)))

(PP (P to) (N^G middes)
    (NP-DAT (D^D +tam) (N^D ise)))

However, when an orthographically independent word has no meaning outsidea particular phrase (NATES in NATES HWON), or when the literal tagging of the parts is misleading (tagging +T+AR in +T+AR RIHTE as locative when +T+ARRIHTE is temporal), the PPCME2 numbering system is used to indicate that the parts belong together; the first number indicates the number of parts and the second number which part the tagged word is. These are quite rare in the corpus.
(NEG+ADV (NEG+ADV21 nates) (NEG+ADV22 hwon))  not at all     NATESHWON

(ADV^T (ADV^T21 +t+ar) (ADV^T22 rihte))       straightaway   +T+ARRIHTE

(ADV (ADV21 huru) (ADV22 +tinga))             especially     HURU+TINGA


In general noun-noun compounds are written as single words in edited Old English texts. Sometimes however this convention is not followed and the two parts are orthographically separated. In "true" compounds, the first part of the compound is not inflected (WINTER SETL, SU+T RIMAN, NOR+T S+A), and it therefore is not labelled for case; the case of the whole compound is indicated on the second element.
(NP-ACC (N winter) (N^A setl))

(NP-DAT (D^D +tam) (N su+t) (N^D riman))

(NP-DAT (D^I +tan) (N arcebiscop) (N^D rice))

The names of peoples like EAST ENGLE, etc. are also treated as compounds. In this case both parts are tagged as proper nouns, but again only the second is labelled for case.
(NP-NOM (NR East) (NR^N Engle))

Special rules for late texts

Unexpected case (-c)
Details on individual late texts

Table of Contents
A few of the texts included in the corpus are sufficiently late that the usual case and mood distinctions are starting to break down. Because of this our usual rules for determining case and mood need to be altered slightly in some cases. The texts involved to differing degrees are comargaT, comary, corood, colsigewB, covinceB, cochronE.o34, coeluc1, coeluc2, cojames, coneot, coaugust . These texts may include the following "late" trends, or have unexpected case problems: At least some of the above features also appear sporadically in non-late texts. However, where special rules are listed above, these rules apply only to the listed texts. For instance, cases of verbs in -EN that are extremely unlikely to be subjunctive are nonetheless labelled as subjunctive in non-late texts, all instances of HEOM and HIM are labelled as dative, etc.

Unexpected case (-c)

Case peculiarities, e.g., nominatives for accusatives/datives, etc. or apparently mixed case NPs are difficult to deal with. The majority of these are in Chronicle E, especially the interpolations, but they also appear sporadically elsewhere. In some cases at least, one or more words in the NP retains a marker of the expected case, the others having no ending or a sufficiently degraded one that it is possible to ignore it, and we generally assign the expected case to the whole NP. If this is not possible because the words have clear markers of an unexpected case or clear mismatches of case, we label the case literally on the words of the NP, and label the whole NP according to the expected case, with the -c extension NP(-CASE)-c. This is a last resort policy and is only done when no other option seems possible.
              (VBD halgode)
              (NP-ACC-c (D^N seo) (N^N mynstre)))
      (ID cochronE-INTERPOLATION,ChronE_[Plummer]:656.27.408)) 

              (NP-NOM (D^N +t+at) (N^N w+ater))
              (VBPI renne+d)
              (PP (P to)
                  (NP-c (D^N seo) (RP+VBN^N forensprecone) (NR^N Nor+dburh))))
      (ID cochronE-INTERPOLATION,ChronE_[Plummer]:656.57.437)) 

                  (NP-ACC (NP-GEN-c (D^N +tes) (ADJ^N ilca) (NR^N Offa))
                          (N^A d+ai)))
              (, .)
              (BEDI w+as)
              (NP-NOM (NUM^N an) (N^N ealdorman)
                      (IP-MAT-PRN (NP-NOM *pro*)
                                  (NP-NOM-PRD (NR^N Brordan))
                                  (BEDI w+as)
                                  (VBN gehaten)))
              (. .))
      (ID cochronE-INTERPOLATION,ChronE_[Plummer]:777.14.825)) 

(NODE (IP-SUB-0 (NP-NOM (D^N seo) (NR^N Cu+dbriht))
                (VBDI geaf)
                (NP-DAT-c (D^A +tone) (N^D abbote))
                (NP-ACC (NUM L) (N^A punde))
                (PP (ADVP-LOC (ADV^L +t+ar))
                    (P fore)))
      (ID cochronE-INTERPOLATION,ChronE_[Plummer]:777.5.823)) 

Details on individual late texts


The E manuscript of the Anglo-Saxon chronicle is treated in two parts: the basic text and the interpolations. The latter are indicated in the ID as follows cochronE-INTERPOLATION. In all parts of the chronicle the verb inflection -EN is treated as indicative/subjunctive ambiguous, and there are a fair number of cases of nominative +DE.
              (NP-NOM (NR^N Cantwara))
              (VBD ge+dingoden)      <-- ind/subj ambiguous -EN
              (PP (P wi+d)
                  (NP (NR Ine))))
      (ID cochronE,ChronE_[Plummer]:694.1.629))

( (CODE <T22060128000,1083.8>)
  (IP-MAT (NP-GEN-TMP (NUM^G Anes) (N^G d+ages))
          (NP-NOM (D^N +te) (N^N abbot))  <-- +TE for SE
          (VBD eode)
          (PP (P into)
              (NP (FW capitulan)))
          (. .)) (ID cochronE,ChronE_[Plummer]:1083.8.2770))

The vast majority of occurrences of HIM/HEOM in the basic text appear in environments where dative is the expected case. The one possible exception is the use of dative pronoun subjects with bare infinitives, which occurs twice as often as accusative (4:2). These are nevertheless labelled as datives in the basic text.
( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
          (NP-NOM *con*)
          (VBDI heton)
          (NP-DAT (PRO^D heom))
          (IP-INF (VB secgan)
                  (NP-ACC (NP-ACC (NP-GEN (NR^G Brytwalana))
                                  (N^A nahtscipe))
                          (, .)
                          (CONJP (CONJ &)
                                 (NP-ACC (NP-GEN (D^G +tes) (N^G landes))
                                         (N^A cysta)))))
          (. .))
      (ID cochronE,ChronE_[Plummer]:449.9.130)) 

In the interpolations all HIM/HEOM are unlabelled for case.
( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
          (NP (PRO him)) 
          (VBD luuede)
          (NP-NOM (Q^N al) (N^N +teode))
          (. .)) (ID cochronE-INTERPOLATION,ChronE_[Plummer]:654.12.381))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
          (NP-NOM (D^N seo) (N^N kining))
          (NP-ACC (PRO^A hit))
          (NP (PRO him))
          (VBD tydde)
          (. .)) (ID cochronE-INTERPOLATION,ChronE_[Plummer]:656.68.444))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
          (NP-NOM *con*)
          (VBDI leot)
          (IP-INF (NP-SBJ (PRO him))
                  (VB locon)
                  (NP-ACC (D^A +ta) (N^A gewrite)
                          (CP-REL (WNP-NOM-1 0)
                                  (C +te)
                                  (IP-SUB (NP-NOM *T*-1)
                                          (ADVP-TMP (ADV^T +ar))
                                          (BEDI w+aron)
                                          (VBN gefunden)))))
          (. .)) (ID cochronE-INTERPOLATION,ChronE_[Plummer]:963.27.1413))

( (IP-MAT (NP-NOM *con*) 
          (VBD halgode)
          (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO him))
                  (ADVP-TMP (ADV^T +ta))
                  (NP-ACC-PRD (N^A abbot)))
          (. ,)) (ID cochronE-INTERPOLATION,ChronE_[Plummer]:963.12.1402))


The B manuscript of Aelfric's letter to Sigeweard has the following properties. The verb inflection -EN is treated as indicative/subjunctive ambiguous.
( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
          (NP-NOM (PRO^N heo))
          (VBD si+doden)
          (QP-NOM (Q^N ealle))
          (PP (P to)
              (NP-DAT (NP-GEN (NR Egypte))
                      (N^D londe)
                      (, ,)
                      (CP-REL (WADVP-LOC-1 (ADV^L +ter))
                              (C 0)
                              (IP-SUB (ADVP-LOC *T*-1)
                                      (NP-NOM (PRO^N heo))
                                      (NP (N bileofen+a))
                                      (VBDI fundon)))))
          (. .))
      (ID colsigewB,+ALet_4_[SigeweardB]:299.75)) 

Nominative +DE for SE occurs.
              (BEDI w+as)
              (VBN is+ad)
              (NP-NOM (D^N +te) (ADJ^N seofe+da) (N^N mon))
              (PP (P from)
                  (NP-DAT (NR^D Adame)))
              (. :))
      (ID colsigewB,+ALet_4_[SigeweardB]:183.36)) 

Plural HEOM appears in both accusative and dative environments, while singular HIM is used only for dative. Thus HEOM is treated as acc/dat ambiguous, and HIM is dative only.
              (NP-NOM (PRO^N he))
              (VBD bet+ahte)
              (NP (PRO heom)) 
              (PP (P on)
                  (NP-DAT (NP-GEN (N^G h+a+denra))
                          (N^D handum)))
              (. ,)) (ID colsigewB,+ALet_4_[SigeweardB]:797.208))

(NODE (IP-SUB-0 (NP-NOM (NUM^N +dry) (N^N delas))
                (BEPI beo+d)
                (VBN^N id+alede)
                (PP (P +durh)
                    (NP (PRO heom))))
      (ID colsigewB,+ALet_4_[SigeweardB]:274.67)) 

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
          (PP (P of)
              (NP-DAT (ADJ^D hearde) (N^D stanum)))
          (NP (PRO heom))
          (VBDI com)
          (NP-NOM (VAG^N yrnende) (N^N water))
          (. ,))
      (ID colsigewB,+ALet_4_[SigeweardB]:359.98)) 


The second half of the Vincent Life found in Bodley 343 has the following properties. The verb inflection -EN is treated as indicative/subjunctive ambiguous.
( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-NOM (PRO^N we))
          (NP-ACC (PRO^A hine))
          (VBD il+ahten)
          (. ;)) (ID covinceB,:312.19))

Nominative +TE and +TEO occur as well as a couple of cases of non-nominative +TE (which might be instrumental).
                          (CP-REL (WNP-NOM-1 0)
                                  (C +de)
                                  (IP-SUB (NP-NOM *T*-1)
                                          (NP (PRO me))
                                          (VBPI +den+a+d))))
              (, ,)
              (VBPS fylige)
              (NP-NOM-RSP (PRO^N he))
              (NP (PRO me))
              (ADVP-TMP (ADV^T +tenne))
              (. ;))
       (ID covinceB,[Vincent]:293.8))

( (CODE <T03350009100,328>)
          (BEPI is)
          (NP-NOM (D^N +deo) (N^N sawla))
          (VBN iset)
          (PP (P for)
              (NP-DAT (D^D +tisse) (ADJ^D sceorte) (N^D life))) 
          (. ,)) (ID covinceB,[Vincent]:328.28))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-NOM (PRO^N he))
          (VBPI bring+a+d)
          (NP-ACC (D^A +tone) (N^A w+astm))
          (, ,)
          (CP-ADV (C +t+at) 
                  (IP-SUB (BEP beo)
                          (NP-NOM (PRO^N we))
                          (ADJP-NOM-PRD (ADJ^N synfulle))))
          (, ,)
          (PP (P into)
              (NP-DAT (D +te) (ADJ^I wynsume) (N^D b+arne) <-- non-nominative +TE
                      (NP-GEN (D^G +tare) (ADJ^G ecan) (N^G wununge))))
          (. .)) (ID covinceB,[Vincent]:304.16))

Both HIRE and HIM are acc/dat ambiguous, while HEOM, which occurs only twice appears to be dative only.
( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-NOM-LFD (D^N +te)
                      (CP-REL (WNP-NOM-1 0)
                              (C +de)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-NOM *T*-1)
                                      (NP-ACC (PRO$ his) (N^A sawl+a))
                                      (VBPI hat+a+d)
                                      (PP (P on)
                                          (NP-DAT (D^D +tissere) (N^D weorulde))))))
          (, ,)
          (NP-NOM-RSP (D^N +te))
          (VBPI heald)
          (NP (PRO hire))
          (PP (P on)
              (NP-DAT (D^D +tam) (ADJ^D ecan) (N^D life)))
          (. .)) (ID covinceB,[Vincent]:290.7))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
          (NP-NOM-LFD (D^N +te)
                      (CP-REL (WNP-NOM-1 0)
                              (C +de)
                              (IP-SUB (NP-NOM *T*-1)
                                      (NP (PRO me))
                                      (VBPI +dena+t))))
          (, ,)
          (NP-RSP (PRO him))
          (ADVP-TMP (ADV^T +tonne))
          (VBPI arwur+da+d)
          (NP-NOM (PRO$^N min) (N^N f+ader) (ADJ^N almihtig+a)
                  (CP-REL (WNP-NOM-2 (D^N +te))
                          (C +de)
                          (IP-SUB (NP-NOM *T*-2)
                                  (BEPI is)
                                  (PP (P on)
                                      (NP-DAT (N^D heofenum))))))
          (. .))
      (ID covinceB,[Vincent]:293.10)) 

( (CODE <T03350009700,349>)
  (IP-MAT (CP-ADV (P Gif)
		  (C 0)
		  (IP-SUB (NP-NOM (PRO^N we))
			  (NP-DAT (NR^D Criste))
			  (VBPI +deni+a+d)))
          (, ,)
          (NP-NOM (PRO^N we))
          (MDPS sceolen)
          (NP (PRO him))
          (VB fyligen)
          (. .)) (ID covinceB,[Vincent]:349.39))