Main Verbs and Auxiliary Use of HAVE, BE, DO
Modals used as main verbs
Present participle for infinitive
The A-HUNTING construction
Modals (MD, MD0)
Infinitive markers (TO, FOR, FOR+TO)
Table of Contents

Main Verbs and Auxiliary Use of HAVE, BE, DO

The verb BE
        BE      infinitive
        BEI     imperative
        BEP     present (including present subjunctive)
        BED     past (including past subjunctive)
        BAG     present participle
        BEN     perfect participle
The verb HAVE
        HV      infinitive 
        HVI     imperative
        HVP     present (including present subjunctive)
        HVD     past (including past subjunctive)
        HAG     present participle
        HVN     perfect participle
        HAN     passive participle (verbal or adjectival)
The verb DO
        DO      infinitive
        DOI     imperative
        DOP     present (including present subjunctive)
        DOD     past (including past subjunctive)
        DAG     present participle
        DON     perfect participle
        DAN     passive participle (verbal or adjectival)
All other verbs
        VB      infinitive
        VBI     imperative
        VBP     present (including present subjunctive)
        VBD     past (including past subjunctive)
        VAG     present participle
        VBN     perfect participle
        VAN     passive participle (verbal or adjectival)
The forms of the verbs BE, HAVE, and DO are distinguished from all other verbs, but no distinction is made in the tag for auxiliary and main verb use for BE, HAVE, and DO. In the syntactically annotated (parsed) files, auxiliary forms of BE and HAVE can be distinguished from main verb forms by the presence of a participle in the clause, for BE either a perfect or passive/adjectival participle and for HAVE a perfect participle. Periphrastic DO is always accompanied by an infinitive. In the POS files, however, empty categories are not added, and thus care must be taken to distinguish main verb use of BE, HAVE, and DO, from cases in which the untensed verb has been elided..
        therefore_ADV+P aske_VBI what_WPRO ye_PRO 
        woll_VBP els_ADV ,_,

        I_PRO woll_VBP well_ADV ,_, '_' seyde_VBD
        Balan_NPR ,_, '_' that_C ye_PRO so_ADV do_DOP

Modals used as main verbs

Modal verbs are tagged as main verbs when this reading is forced; that is, when a reading with the main verb elided is not available.
        therefore_ADV+P ye_PRO may_MD sey_VB what_WPRO 
        ye_PRO woll_MD ,_.

        '_' I_PRO woll_VBP well_ADV ,_, '_' seyde_VBD Balan_NPR ,_, 
        '_' that_C ye_PRO so_ADV do_DOP ;_;


Subjunctive forms are not distinguished from indicative forms in any tense.
        but_P yf_P your_PRO$ persone_N be_BEP there_ADV

        but_P yf_P he_PRO juste_VBP with_P the_PRO

Present participle for infinitive

In some early texts (notably the Trinity Homilies) a present participle form is commonly used for the infinitive. In such cases the word is tagged by function rather than form, that is, as an infinitive VB.
        Alse_P ge_PRO hauen_HVP giwer_PRO$ lichame_N don_DON 
        to_TO hersumiende_VB fule_ADJ lustes_NS ;_, and_CONJ 
        unriht_ADJ ,_, alse_ALSO do+d_DOI giwer_PRO$ lichame_N 
        he+denfor+d_ADV to_TO hersumiende_VB clennesse_N ._, and_CONJ
        rihtwisnesse_N ._, and_CONJ holinesse_N ._,


Verbal and adjectival use of the present and perfect participles is not distinguished, that is, they are both tagged VAN or VAG. The nominal use of the present participle, on the other hand, is tagged as a noun N.
        for_CONJ he_PRO ys_BEP the_D mervaylyste_ADJS knyght_N
        that_C ys_BEP now_ADV lyvynge_VAG ._.

        but_CONJ traveillynge_VAG men_NS are_BEP ofte_ADV wery_ADJ

        I_PRO was_BED but_FP late_ADJ at_P a_D justynge_N

        and_CONJ she_PRO graunted_VBD hem_PRO with_P wepynge_N it_PRO
        shold_MD be_BE done_DAN rychely_ADV

        Nero_NPR and_CONJ his_PRO$ peple_NS were_BED destroyed_VAN

        the_D blessid_VAN body_N of_P oure_PRO$ Lord_NPR Jesu_NPR Cryst_NPR

The A-HUNTING construction

The A-HUNTING construction is treated as phrasal:
        he_PRO made_VBD hym_PRO redy_ADJ with_P many_Q knyghtes_NS
        to_TO ryde_VB on_P huntynge_N

        and_CONJ there_ADV mette_VBD with_P a_D knyght_N that_C 
        had_HVD bene_BEN an_P hontynge_N

For present participle forms used as infinitives, see Section PRESENT PARTICIPLE FOR INFINITIVE.

Modals (MD, MD0)

        MD      Modal verb
        MD0     Untensed modal verb (second of two modals)
Forms of the following verbs when accompanied by a main verb are tagged as modals:

Modal verbs used in main verb sense are tagged as main verbs when that reading is forced. In cases where elipsis of the main verb is also possible, the default is to tag the verb as a modal.
        therefore_ADV+P ye_PRO may_MD sey_VB what_WPRO 
        ye_PRO woll_MD ,_.

        '_' I_PRO woll_VBP well_ADV ,_, '_' seyde_VBD Balan_NPR ,_, 
        '_' that_C ye_PRO so_ADV do_DOP ;_;

The tag MD0 is used in cases in which a second untensed modal verb is present as well as an untensed main verb.
        supposyng_VAG +tat_C he_PRO schuld_MD cun_MD0 best_ADVS 
        rede_VB +te_D booke_N ,_.

        Dowtyr_N ,_, whan_P +tu_PRO art_BEP in_P Heuyn_NPR ,_, 
        +tu_PRO xalt_MD mown_MD0 askyn_VB what_WPRO +tu_PRO wylt_MD ,_.

Infinitive markers (TO, FOR, FOR+TO)

     TO        Infinitival TO, TIL, AND AT
     FOR       Infinitival FOR in FOR TO
     FOR+TO    Cliticized FOR+TO

TO is used to tag any form of the infinitive marker. When it is cliticized to the verb, the combination is tagged TO+VB, etc.
        and_CONJ desyred_VBD to_TO have_HV lyen_VBN by_P her_PRO

        +te_D riht_ADJ +tidir_ADV at_TO cume_VB +tai_PRO sal_MD 
        haue_HV ,_.

        Gyf_VBI +tien_PRO$ entent_N til_TO understand_VB 
        +tis_D wrytyng_N 

FOR in conjunction with an infinitive is always labelled FOR and treated as part of the auxiliary rather than as a preposition. If TO is cliticized to FOR, the combination is labelled FOR+TO.
        and_CONJ fondede_VBD forto_FOR+TO slee_VB 
        Iustinianus_NPR ._.

        &_CONJ +te_D eadie_ADJ katerine_NPR bigon_VBD 
        forte_FOR+TO seggen_VB ._.