Stephen L. Smith BSc MSc PhD CEng CITP FBCS FHEA

Senior Lecturer
Department of Electronics
The University of York
Heslington, York YO10 5DD, U.K.

Room: P/M103
Tel: +44 (0)1904 432351
Fax: +44 (0) 1904 432335



BIBM 2014 - Workshop on Computational Intelligence for Biomedicine and Bioinformatics



I am a member of the Intelligent Systems research group in the Department of Electronics at the University of York, UK.

My research interests are centred on the study of alternative representations for evolutionary algorithms and their application to problems in medicine and image processing.  My theoretical studies concern a specific example of evolutionary computation known as Cartesian genetic programming (CGP) [1-4], originally developed by Julian Miller and a novel representation inspired by the human immune system [5].

Medical applications for these algorithms include Parkinson’s disease [6-10], Alzheimer’s disease [11] and the detection of malignant microcalcifications in mammograms [12-13].  Recent work has led to the development of a novel non-invasive system to aid diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease by using commercially available peripherals such as a digitizing tablet to measure the cardinal symptoms of tremor and bradykinesia (a slowing of movement). Funding has enabled clinical trials to be undertaken at Leeds General Infirmary and the Royal Liverpool University Hospitals, and a patent protecting the technology is currently being filed.

I also enjoy working on the application of rich media technologies to cultural and heritage museum exhibits. Exploiting digital video, sound and interaction has led to a number of projects at regional and national museums, including the Yorkshire and Castle museums in York, the Royal Museum of Edinburgh and the National Railway Museum, all of which use video as an interactive media to enhance the learning experience and facilitate knowledge transfer.

Along with Stefano Cagnoni, I co-founded MedGEC, the GECCO Workshop on medical applications of genetic and evolutionary computation, which is now in its sixth year. We are also editors for a forthcoming book on the subject due for publication in November 2010. I was recently tutorial chair for the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC2009) in Trondheim and am local organiser for the forthcoming International Conference on Evolvable Systems (ICES2010) to be held in York, in September 2010.

I am associate editor for Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines, the Journal of Artificial Evolution and Applications, and a member of the editorial board for the International Journal of Computers in Healthcare.


1. Miller, J.F. and Smith, S.L. “Redundancy and Computational Efficiency in Cartesian Genetic Programming,” IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 10, No.2, 167-174, 2006.

2. Xinye Cai, Smith, S.L. and Tyrrell, A.M. "Positional Independence and Recombination in Cartesian Genetic Programming,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Vol. 3905, 351-360, 2006.

3. Cai, X., Smith, S.L. and Tyrrell, A.M. "Benefits of Employing an Implicit Context Representation on Hardware Geometry of CGP,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Vol. 3637, 143-154, 2005.

4. Smith, S.L., Legget, S and Tyrrell, A.M. "An Implicit Context Representation for Evolving Image Processing Filters”, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 3449, 407-416, 2005.

5. Smith, S.L. and Timmis, J. "An immune network inspired evolutionary algorithm for the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease," BioSystems, Vol. 94, Nos.1-2, 2008.

6. Smith, S.L. Guaghan, P., Du, Q. Aly, N. M., Playfer, J. R., Smith, S. L. and Halliday, D. M.. “Diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease using Evolutionary Algorithms,” Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines, Vol.8, 433-447, 2007.

7. Aly, N. M., Playfer, J. R., Smith, S. L. and Halliday, D. M., “A novel computer-based technique for the assessment of tremor in Parkinson's disease,” Age and Ageing, Vol.36, No.4, 395-399, 2007.

8. Allen, D.P., Playfer, J.R., Aly, N.M.,. Duffey, P., A. Heald, A., Smith, S.L. and Halliday, D.M., "On the use of low-cost computer peripherals for the assessment of motor dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease – Quantification of bradykinesia using target tracking tasks." IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems & Rehabilitation Engineering. Vol.15, No.2, 286-294, 2007.

9. Allen, D.P., Halliday, D.M., Smith, S.L., Playfer, J. & Aly, N. "A clinical diagnostic tool for the assessment of bradykinesia in Parkinson’s disease using low cost computer peripherals," Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine, Annual Scientific Meeting, 34, 2005.

10. Smith, S.L. et. al. “The Application of Evolutionary Algorithms towards the Diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease,” GECCO Workshop on Medical Applications of GEC, Seattle, July, 2006.

11. Hazell, A. and Smith, S.L. “Towards an Objective Assessment of Alzheimer's Disease: The Application of a Novel Evolutionary Algorithm in the Analysis of Figure Copying Tasks,” accepted for presentation at the GECCO Workshop on Medical Applications of GEC, Atlanta, July, 2008.

12. Walker, J.A., Völk, K., Smith, S.L. and Miller, J.F. “Parallel evolution using multi-chromosome Cartesian genetic programming,” Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines, Vol.10, No.4, 2009.

13. Völk, K., Miller, J.F. and Smith, S.L. “Multiple Network CGP for the Classification of Mammograms,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 5484, No.4, 405-413, 2009.


Home | Publications