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Complementizers (C)

THAT, +TE, etc. (Complementizer)
AS (Complementizer)
IF (Complementizer)
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THAT, +TE, etc. (Complementizer)

THAT, +TE (and variants) introducing any kind of subordinate clause is tagged C.
        and_CONJ sei+t_VBP +tat_C it_PRO was_BED ano+ter_D+OTHER body_N

        and_CONJ was_BED i-schore_VAN monk_N in_P an_D abbay_N 
        +tat_C he_PRO hym_PRO self_N bulde_VBD

        dohter_N he_PRO cleope+d_VBP hire_PRO ._, for-+ti_P+D 
        +tt_C ha_PRO understonde_VBP ._, +tt_C he_PRO hire_PRO 
        luueliche_ADJ liues_N$ luue_N leare+d_VBP ._, as_P feader_N 
        ah_MD his_PRO$ dohter_N ._.

        Al_Q swo_ADV he_PRO de+d_DOP +to_D men_NS +de_C sennen_NS 
        habbe+d_HVP forhaten_VBN te_TO laten_VB

AS (Complementizer)

AS is tagged C in the following cases:
  1. in locative relatives, especially with THERE, WHERE, THIDER, etc.
            And_CONJ ye_PRO shall_MD nevir_ADV reste_VB one_ONE nyght_N 
            there_ADV as_C ye_PRO do_DOP another_D+OTHER ,_,
            ha_PRO beon_BEP istihe_VAN +tider_ADV as_C
            hare_PRO$ brudlac_N+N schal_MD
            a+tt_P ha_PRO beon_BEP istihe_VAN +tider_ADV as_C
            hare_PRO$ brudlac_N+N schal_MD ... sitten_VB buten_P ende_N
            Hwer_WADV as_C ani_Q of_P +teose_D wes_BED +ter_ADV wes_BED 
            +te_D cundel_N o+der_CONJ +te_D alde_ADJ moder_N of_P +te_D 
            attri_ADJ neddre_N of_P onde_N
            for_CONJ swa_ADV ach_MD ancre_N hire_PRO ane_ONE in_P anli_ADJ 
            stude_N as_C ha_PRO is_BEP chirmin_VB &_CONJ chiterin_VB 
            hire_PRO$ beoden_NS
  2. in exclamations
            O_INTJ ;_, mine_PRO$ Leoue_ADJ sustren_NS as_C eue_NPR 
            haue+d_HVP monie_Q dochtren_NS ._, +tt_C fole+ge+d_VBP 
            hare_PRO$ moder_N ._, +tt_C ondswere+d_VBP on_P +tisse_D 
            wise_N ._.
            O_INTJ +te_D mihte_N of_P mei+dhad_N as_C +tu_PRO art_BEP 
            iwepnet_VAN to_TO weorrin_VB a-+gein_P us_PRO ._.
  3. in AS free relatives such as HE DOES AS HE IS TOLD
             Only_FP doo_DOI as_C I_PRO say_VBP +te_PRO
             do_DOI as_C the_D prophete_N saith_VBP
  4. in THAT clauses where ModE has THAT
            +ta_P ha_PRO weren_BED iseten_VAN up_RP ;_, sehen_VBD as_C 
            +te_D engles_NS wi+d_P smirles_NS of_P aromaz_NS smireden_VBD 
            hire_PRO$ wunden_NS
  5. in DEGREE COMPLEMENTS where ModE has THAT
            I_PRO shall_MD so_ADVR avaunce_VB $you_PRO as_C
            ye_PRO shall_MD be_BE pleased_VAN
Note that AS in SUCH AS comparative clauses is tagged P however; see Section SUCH AS.
        And_CONJ whan_P they_PRO sawe_VBD the_PRO scripture_N 
        som_Q assayed_VBD suche_SUCH as_P wold_MD have_HV ben_BEN kyng_N

        but_CONJ I_PRO wente_VBD ye_PRO had_HVD nat_NEG bene_BEN 
        such_SUCH a_D knyght_N as_P ye_PRO ar_BEP of_P worship_N 
        and_CONJ prouesse_N ._.

IF (Complementizer)

IF introducing an indirect question is labelled C.
        telle_VBI me_PRO if_C thou_PRO saw_VBD any_Q stronge_ADJ
        beeste_N passe_VB thys_D way_N

When an indirect question is introduced by IF THAT both are labelled C.
        Than_ADV she_PRO salewed_VBD the_D kynge_N and_CONJ the_D 
        quene_N and_CONJ asked_VBD if_C that_C sir_NPR Launcelot_NPR 
        were_BED there_ADV ,_.

        thynke_VBI at_P +te_D begynnynge_N if_C +tat_C it_PRO be_BEP 
        Goddes_NPR$ will_N or_CONJ noghte_NEG ._.

        and_CONJ sche_PRO asked_VBD him_PRO +gif_C +tat_C he_PRO 
        were_BED a_D knyght_N

Coordinating Conjunctions (CONJ)

The following are tagged CONJ:

        NEITHER...NOR, OTHER (=OR), 

        ai+der_CONJ +ge_CONJ hodede_VAN +ge_CONJ leawede_ADJ

        +ge_CONJ +de_D saule_N +ge_CONJ +de_D lichame_N

        nai+der_CONJ ne_CONJ be_P heuene_NPR ne_CONJ be_P ier+de_NPR

Cardinal numbers except ONE (NUM, NUM$)

Possessive/genitive NUM (NUM$)
Treatment of individual words
HALF (Number)
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All cardinal numbers except ONE and those in foreign language sequences (see Section FOREIGN WORDS) are tagged NUM, whether they are written out or in number form.

        This_D Joyous_ADJ trouth_N conteyneth_VBP in_P itself_PRO 
        two_NUM partyes_NS

        +ter_EX schal_MD com_VB befor_ADV xv_NUM dayes_NS of_P gret_ADJ

        and_CONJ all_D men_NS and_CONJ woymen_NS and_CONJ
        childyrne_NS schull_MD aryse_VB vp_RP yn_P +te_D age_N of_P
        xxx=ti=_NUM +gere_N
In cases where an ordinal might be expected but there is no overt marking, NUM is used.
        The_D ij._NUM day_N hit_PRO schall_MD fall_VB downe_RP

        The_D appostle_N this_D declareth_VBP to_P the_D Hebreos_NPRS 
        the_D .ix._NUM chapytre_N ._. 
Numbers included in stretches of foreign language text are tagged FW.
        libro_FW 5=o=_FW ,_, capitulo_FW 24=o=_FW ._.
The word ONE in all uses except as a focus particle (Section ONE AS A FOCUS PARTICLE) and as a predicate in a copular construction or small clause in the meaning ALONE (Section ANE/ONE (ADJECTIVE)) has its own tag (ONE); see Section ONE.

Possessive/genitive NUM (NUM$)

NUM$ is the tag for numbers in the genitive case which are acting as either possessives or genitive complements. There is only one example this in the PPCME2.
        he_PRO nefden_NEG+HVD wit_N $in_P $ham_PRO ne_CONJ tweire_NUM$

Treatment of individual words

HALF (Number)

HALF is tagged NUM in the following cases:
  1. when it directly precedes a noun (or an empty noun head)
            before_P another_D+OTHER half_NUM year_N had_HVD passed_VBN
            they_PRO had_HVD travailled_VBN half_NUM year_N and_CONJ more_QR
            a_D year_N and_CONJ a_D half_NUM
            the_D king_N challenged_VBD half_NUM that_C was_BED won_VAN in_P
  2. when it is part of a measure phrase (head N may be missing)
            you_PRO need_MD not_NEG pull_VB half_NUM so_ADVR hard_ADV
            your_PRO$ bounty_N may_MD no_Q man_N praise_VB half_NUM unto_P
            the_D value_N
HALF is tagged N when it means SIDE, or is modified by a quantifier.
        he_PRO had_HVD all_Q the_D land_N on_P this_D half_N Humber_NPR

        she_PRO was_BED on_P this_D half_N the_D sea_N

        for_CONJ in_P no_Q half_N man_N makes_VBP good_ADJ the_D
        accounts_NS of_P an_D earthly_ADJ prince_N
HALF is tagged Q when it precedes a determiner, or acts adverbially
        half_Q a_D year_N

        they_PRO had_HVD gotten_VBN half_Q the_D world_N

        if_P the_D bishop_N that_C is_BEP but_FP half_Q given_VAN to_P
        Gods_NPR$ service_N does_DOP nothing_Q+N ...


ONCE, TWICE, and THRICE are tagged NUM. When ONCE doesn't mean ONE TIME, it is tagged P when it introduces a subordinate clause and ADV, otherwise.
        I_PRO requyre_VBP the_PRO to_TO kysse_VB me_PRO
        but_FP onys_NUM

        and_CONJ twyse_NUM I_PRO smote_VBD hym_PRO downe_RP

        his_PRO$ horse_N turned_VBD twyse_NUM abowte_RP

        and_CONJ all_Q three_NUM laysshynge_VAG on_P hym_PRO 
        at_P onys_ADV with_P swerdys_NS


DOUBLE, TRIPLE, etc. are always tagged NUM.
        double_NUM manere_N of_P money_N

        +te_D sale_N of_P +tynges_NS was_BED of_P double_NUM price_N

Negation (NEG)

NONE, NO (Negation)
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The negative particles NOT and NE are tagged NEG.

        non_Q senne_N ne_NEG mai_MD bien_BE idon_DAN 
        bute_P +durh_P unhersumnesse_N

        for_CONJ I_PRO wille_MD not_NEG be_BE long_ADJ 

        hit_PRO ne_NEG derue+d_VBP ham_PRO nawt_NEG

        me_MAN ne_NEG net_VBP me_PRO noht_NEG te_TO 

Verbs and modals with negation cliticized to the beginning are tagged with NEG plus the appropriate verb tag.
        he_PRO nade_NEG+HVD no_Q more_QR lande_N

        wherfore_WADV+P he_PRO nyst_NEG+VBD what_WPRO forto_FOR+TO done_DO 
NOUGHT, NAHT, NOT, etc. in the meaning NOTHING are tagged Q; see Section NOUGHT, NOT (QUANTIFIER). In early texts where NAWIHT has not yet differentiated into NOT and NOUGHT, it is tagged Q if an object is required, and otherwise NEG, even when it is in a position not usually associated with NOT.
        and_CONJ he_PRO him_PRO naue+t_NEG+HVP nawiht_NEG iholpen_VBN

        he_PRO him_PRO nawiht_NEG ne_NEG help_VBD

NONE, NO (Negation)

NO and NONE in WHETHER OR NOT clauses are tagged NEG.
        wheither_WQ it_PRO oghte_MD nedes_ADV be_BE doon_DAN 
        or_CONJ noon_NEG

        wheither_WQ he_PRO wol_MD doon_DO or_CONJ no_NEG

Adverbial particles (RP)

The following words are tagged RP when they do not have a nominal complement.

        and_CONJ rode_VBD on_RP more_QR than_P a_D paas_N

        and_CONJ therwith_ADV+P he_PRO yelde_VBD up_RP the_D ghost_N

        sir_NPR Ector_NPR assayed_VBD to_TO pulle_VB oute_RP the_D swerd_N

        And_CONJ Sir_NPR Rauf_NPR of_P Beeston_NPR +gaf_VBD vp_RP 
        the_D castel_N to_P the_D Kyng_N

This includes the case where the particle immediately precedes another preposition; see Section PREPOSITIONS AND PARTICLES.
        +tai_PRO were_BED exilede_VAN oute_RP of_P Spaygne_NPR

        knelyng_VAG doun_RP oppon_P his_PRO$ knees_NS

        &_CONJ earnin_VB him_PRO crune_N up_RP o_P crune_N

        &_CONJ healden_VB hit_PRO se_ADVR wal_ADV hat_ADJ hehe_ADJ
        up_RP on_P hire_PRO$ heaued_N

        me_MAN droh_VBD hire_PRO +tus_ADV in_RP to_P dorkest_ADJS wan_N

ADOWN is labelled P+RP. See Section ADOWN.

Focus particles (FP)

ONE as a focus particle
The NE... BUT construction
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The following words are tagged FP when used as focus particles:


All except ONLY also have other uses.
        they_PRO shold_MD come_VB by_P Crystmasse_NPR even_FP 
        unto_P London_NPR

        and_CONJ kut_VBD thorow_P the_D trappoure_N of_P stele_N 
        and_CONJ the_D horse_N evyn_FP in_P two_NUM pecis_NS

        he_PRO axede_VBD no+ting_Q+N wi+t_P here_PRO ,_, but_P oneliche_FP 
        heir_PRO$ clo+ting_N and_CONJ oneliche_FP heir_PRO$ body_N 

        there_EX was_BED but_FP fewe_Q folk_NS at_P that_D tyme_N 
        that_C beleved_VBD perfitely_ADV

        ye_PRO were_BED never_ADV but_FP my_PRO$ servaunte_N syn_P ye_PRO 
        resseyved_VBD the_D omayge_N of_P oure_PRO$ Lorde_N Jesu_NPR

        +tat_C hie_PRO ne_NEG biholden_VBP non_Q iuel_N ne_CONJ non_Q 
        un-nut_ADJ ne_CONJ for+den_FP idel_ADJ

        hie_PRO bie+d_BEP ut-iworpen_VAN +durh_P dieules_NPR$ lare_N ,_, 
        naht_NEG for_P hem_PRO seluen_N ane_FP

        +De_D mann_N ne_NEG leue+d_VBP naht_NEG $be_P {TEXT:he}_CODE
        bread_N ane_FP

        Singuler_ADJ lufe_N es_BEP bot_FP of_P Jhesu_NPR Cryste_NPR alane_FP

        +tan_ADV wil_MD +te_PRO liste_VB stele_VB by_P +te_PRO alane_FP

        hwi_WADV wi+d_VBP21 dra+gest_VBP22 +tu_PRO +tin_PRO$ hont_N ._, 
        &_CONJ +get_FP +tin_PRO$ king_N hond_N of_P midde_N +tine_PRO$ 

ONE as a focus particle

ONE is treated as a focus particle when it means ONLY, ALONE and follows the noun or pronoun it focusses, or when it follows NOT in the meaning NOT ONLY.
        wi+d-uten_P Crist_NPR ane_FP

        wi+duten_P sennen_NS ane_FP

        hie_PRO bie+d_BEP ut-iworpen_VAN +durh_P dieules_NPR$ 
        lare_N ,_, naht_NEG for_P hem_PRO seluen_N ane_FP ,_, 
        ac_CONJ for_FOR o+dre_OTHERS ec_ALSO awei_ADV te_TO affleien_VB

        +De_D mann_N ne_NEG leue+d_VBP naht_NEG $be_P bread_N ane_FP

        for_CONJ +te_D nome_N of_P ester_NPR ne_NEG sei+d_VBP 
        naut_NEG ane_FP ab_FW scondita_FW ._, +tt_D is_BEP 
        naut_NEG ane_FP ihud_VAN

ONE may appear in the genitive, when modifying a genitive and in this case is still tagged FP.
        &_CONJ in_P his_PRO$ anes_FP seruise_N hare_PRO$ lif_N lea+de+d_VBP
        ``and in the service of him alone [she] leads her life''

ONE in the meaning ALONE in a copular construction or small clause is tagged ADJ; see Section ANE/ONE (ADJECTIVE). In all other uses it is tagged ONE; see Section ONE.

The NE... BUT construction

In the NE... BUT construction, BUT is tagged FP.
        and_CONJ that_D nas_NEG+BED but_FP his_PRO$ clothes_NS

        al_Q the_D sorwe_N that_C a_D man_N myghte_MD make_VB fro_P 
        the_D bigynnyng_N of_P the_D world_N nys_NEG+BEP but_FP a_D
        litel_ADJ thyng_N


Wh-determiner (WD)
Wh-pronoun (WPRO)
Possessive wh-pronoun (WPRO$)
Wh-adverb (WADV)
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Wh-determiner (WD)

WHAT and WHICH followed by a noun are tagged WD.
        by_P whiche_WD lawe_N +tey_PRO schulde_MD
        knowe_VB God_NPR and_CONJ worschippe_VB hym_PRO

        +te_D whiche_WD prophete_N and_CONJ lawe_N 
        +te_D Saracenes_NPRS shold_MD folowe_VB

        and_CONJ he_PRO axede_VBD ... what_WD men_NS +tey_PRO 
        were_BED ,_, and_CONJ of_P what_WD con-dicioun_N and_CONJ

        to_TO see_VB what_WD ende_N +te_D bataille_N schulde_MD have_HV

Wh-pronoun (WPRO)

WHO, WHAT, and WHICH heading a wh-NP are tagged WPRO. This includes cases of THE WHICH, and WHETHER in the meaning WHICH OF TWO.
        what_WPRO +tou_PRO hast_HVP sette_VBN on_P fyre_N 
        +tat_D ha+t_HVP i-brene_VBN on_P +te_PRO

        he_PRO wolde_MD make_VB hym_PRO here_PRO$ prince_N 
        whom_WPRO +te_D Holy_NPR Goost_NPR wolde_MD schewe_VB 
        in_P colveres_N$ liche_N

        by_P +te_D whiche_WPRO +tei_PRO fonde+t_VBD
        to_TO lette_VB holy_ADJ men_NS

        than_ADV there_EX began_VBD a_D new_ADJ batayle_N 
        whych_WPRO was_BED sore_ADJ and_CONJ harde_ADJ

Possessive wh-pronoun (WPRO$)

The tag for WHOSE is WPRO$.
        he_PRO asked_VBD hir_PRO ... whos_WPRO$ was_BED 
        the_D child_N within_P her_PRO$ body_N
        and_CONJ by_P whoos_WPRO$ commandement_N

Wh-adverb (WADV)

Wh-adverbs (WHERE, WHEN, WHY, HOW, WHENSE) are tagged WADV. However, WHEN in adverbial clauses is tagged P (see Section SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS).
        and_CONJ asked_VBD the_D kynge_N why_WADV he_PRO was_BED seke_ADJ

        Where_WADV is_BEP he_PRO ?_,

        But_CONJ the_D duke_N of_P Tyntigail_NPR aspyed_VBD 
        hou_WADV the_D kyng_N rode_VBD fro_P the_D syege_N 
        of_P Tarabil_NPR

        +tu_PRO mowe_MD isee_VB whanne_WADV he_PRO come+t_VBP in_RP

        Than_ADV he_PRO tolde_VBD hir_PRO$ of_P whens_WADV he_PRO was_BED

Note that WHEN is tagged WADV only in questions and relatives; in adverbial clauses it is tagged P. See Section PREPOSITIONS.


When introducing indirect questions, WHETHER is tagged WQ.
        but_CONJ for_P I_PRO kepe_VBP nou+gt_NEG to_TO 
        hastiliche_ADV afferme_VB whe+ter_WQ it_PRO
        be_BEP in_P +tat_D place_N o+ter_CONJ no_NEG

        and_CONJ axede_VBD of_P hem_PRO +tat_C stood_VBD 
        aboute_RP whe+ter_WQ +tere_EX were_BED mo_QR of_P
         his_PRO$ predecessours_NS in_P paradys_NPR
        o+ter_CONJ in_P helle_NPR

        and_CONJ seide_VBD +tat_C he_PRO moste_MD ,_,
        whe+ter_WQ he_PRO wolde_MD o+ter_CONJ no_NEG ,_,

WHETHER sometimes is used in other ways, primarily as equivalent to WHICH (OF TWO) or WHERE. In these cases it is tagged according to function rather than form, i.e., as WPRO and WADV, respectively. Conversely WHERE can also be used as equivalent to WHETHER, in which case it is tagged WQ.
        and_CONJ axede_VBD +tere_ADV of_P an_D holy_ADJ
        man_N +tat_C was_BED solitaire_ADJ ,_, where_WQ
        he_PRO my+gte_MD overcome_VB +te_D Longobardus_NPRS 
        o+ter_CONJ no_NEG ._.

        and_CONJ we_PRO witen_VBP not_NEG wer_WQ hit_PRO 
        be_BEP ri+gt_ADJ ._.

        Thus_ADV maist_MD thou_PRO rekne_VB bothe_Q arches_NS ,_, 
        or_CONJ every_Q porcioun_N ,_, of_P whether_WPRO that_C 
        the_PRO liketh_VBP ._.

        and_CONJ ilke_Q a_ONE man_N answere_VB of_P his_PRO$ awen_ADJ 
        dedis_NS ,_, and_CONJ be_BE saued_VAN or_CONJ dampnede_VAN 
        whe+ter_WPRO so_ADV he_PRO serues_VBP ;_.

        and_CONJ man_N more_QR parfyghter_ADJR ,_, bothe_CONJ 
        sensyble_ADJ and_CONJ intellygyble_ADJ ,_, may_MD move_VB 
        themself_PRO+N whether_WADV they_PRO wyll_MD ,_.

IF in indirect questions is labelled C; see Section IF (COMPLEMENTIZER).

Interjections (INTJ)

In general INTJ is only used to tag words that are difficult or impossible to tag any other way. Thus phrases like FORSOOTH are tagged P+N, even when used as interjections. Some examples of words tagged INTJ are as follows:

NO is only tagged INTJ in answer to questions (parallel to YES).
        But_CONJ +te_D chanouns_NS of_P Dorchestre_NPR 
        sei+t_VBP nay_INTJ

        "_" Nay_INTJ ,_, "_" quo+t_VBD +te_D aungel_N ,_.

        +Te_D kyng_N and_CONJ his_PRO$ fautoures_NS 
        seide_VBD "_" +gis_INTJ al_Q at_P +te_D fulle_ADJ ._. "_"

        Loo_INTJ ,_, "_" quod_VBD Mahometus_NPR

        Oo_INTJ Kyng_N of_P bliss_N

        Nobler_ADJR +tan_P Cesar_NPR ,_, mayde_N Virago_N 
        ,_, farewel_INTJ ._.

        and_CONJ seide_VBD Amen_INTJ

Foreign words (FW)

Everything (words, symbols, numbers, etc.) except punctuation in foreign language sequences is labelled FW. Outside of foreign language sequences, foreign names (PAULINUS, etc.) are not tagged FW, but NPR (see Section NAMES OF PEOPLE). Latin liturgical terms (PATER NOSTER, TE DEUM, etc.) are generally not tagged FW, but NPR (see Section UNIQUE OBJECTS). Foreign language titles are generally tagged FW.
        In_P that_D Alcoranum_FW it_PRO is_BEP i-wrete_VAN

        in_P the_D prologe_N on_P Regum_FW

        iij._NUM stories_NS of_P the_D ij._NUM book_N of_P 
        Paralypomynon_NPR and_CONJ of_P Regum_FW