Prepositions and subordinating conjunctions (P)

Prepositions and particles
Prepositions in -WARD
Preposition with R-pronoun
Preposition with demonstrative (FOR+TI, FOR+TAN, etc.)
Subordinating conjunctions
Comparative SO, AS, THAN
Prepositional A (IN,ON)
Treatment of individual words
ALSWA, etc.
In adverbial AS clauses
Table of Contents

Prepositions are tagged P.

        on_P your_PRO$ wey_N
        with_P Merlyn_NPR
        to_P the_D kynge_N
        of_P Tyntigayll_NPR

Prepositions and particles

When one of the list of adverbial particles (see Section ADVERBIAL PARTICLES) precedes a preposition immediately, it is tagged as a particle, even in cases such as IN TO or UP ON which might be interpreted as cases of split prepositions. For a list of cases treated as split prepositions, see Section PREPOSITIONS.
        oute_RP of_P the_D byggest_ADJS castell_N
        doune_RP to_P the_D erthe_N

        &_CONJ earnin_VB him_PRO crune_N up_RP o_P crune_N

        me_MAN droh_VBD hire_PRO +tus_ADV in_RP to_P dorkest_ADJS wan_N


The cliticized preposition+particle combination ADOWN is tagged P+RP.
        &_CONJ dude_DOD swa_P +tt_C hit_PRO +geat_VBD adun_P+RP 
        of_P +te_D +gerden_NS 

        &_CONJ com_VBD sihinde_VAG adun_P+RP softe_ADV from_P 

        and_CONJ so_ADV he_PRO leyde_VBD hym_PRO adowne_P+RP 
        by_P sir_NPR Launcelot_NPR

Prepositions in -WARD

Prepositions in -WARD (TOWARD, FROWARD, etc) are tagged P; see Section WARD.
        and_CONJ makede_VBD his_PRO$ weie_N toward_P ierusalem_NPR

        &_CONJ firse+d_VBP him_PRO awei_P froward_P vre_PRO$ steuene_N

Preposition with R-pronoun

Prepositions cliticized to R-pronouns are labelled ADV+P.
         and_CONJ therewith_ADV+P he_PRO fylle_VBD in_P a_D sowne_N

         and_CONJ so_ADVR muche_Q meete_N was_BED sette_VAN thereon_ADV+P

         and_CONJ therein_ADV+P was_BED a_D jantillwoman_ADJ+N

Preposition with demonstrative (FOR+TI, FOR+TAN, etc.)

A preposition may be followed by a demonstrative (FOR +TI, FOR +TAN, FOR +TAT, IN +TAT, WI+T +TAN, etc.) either absolutely, or followed by a clause or NP. In all cases these are tagged D, or if the preposition and demonstrative are cliticized, P+D. See also Section PREPOSITIONS WITH A DEMONSTRATIVE PLUS CLAUSE OR NP.
        after_P +dan_D +de_C here_PRO$ herte_N leste_VBD ,_, 
        ic_PRO hem_PRO fol+gede_VBD ._. '_'

        Ach_CONJ ear_P +tenne_D +te_D biddunge_N areare_VBP 
        ani_Q scheonde_N ._, ear_ADV dei+ge_VBP martir_N in_P 
        hire_PRO$ meoseise_N ._.
        for_P +ti_D +tt_C +tu_PRO ne_NEG wilnest_VBP bute_FP to_TO 
        seo_VB mi_PRO$ wlite_N ._, ne_NEG speoke_VBI bute_FP to_P me_PRO ._.

        be_P +tan_D +tet_C scele_N a-li+gt_VBP be_P grace_N tek+t_VBP ._.

        We_PRO ben_BEP tau+gt_VAN in_P +tat_D +tat_C we_PRO seon_VBP 
        in_P suche_SUCH creatures_NS +te_D wonder_ADJ werkes_NS of_P 
        vre_PRO$ Creatour_N ;_.

        and_CONJ for+ti_P+D it_PRO es_BEP lastandar_ADJR 
        and_CONJ sykerar_ADJR

        For+dan_P+D hie_PRO bie+d_BEP godes_NPR$ wi+derwinen_NS

        For+di_P+D +dat_C ich_PRO nabbe_NEG+HVP ihafd_HVN 
        rihte_ADJ ileaue_N


FORWHI when used as a subordinator (similar to FOR+TI) is labelled P+WADVor if separate for_P whi_WADV.
         forwhi_P+WADV Jesabel_NPR his_PRO$ wijf_N 
         excitide_VBD him_PRO

         for_P whi_WADV tho_D ben_BEP wordis_NS of_P 
         euerlastyng_ADV+VAG lif_N

Subordinating conjunctions

Subordinating conjunctions are treated as prepositions taking a clausal complement and tagged P. This includes WHEN introducing an adverbial clause, but not in questions, where it is tagged WADV.
        and_CONJ wolde_VBD +tat_C his_PRO$ doughtres_NS
        were_BED mariede_VAN or_P +tat_C he_PRO deide_VBD ._.

        And_CONJ after_P +tat_C +tis_D Donewal_NPR
        was_BED $dede_ADJ ,_, his_PRO$ sones_NS +tat_C
        he_PRO hade_HVD ,_, departede_VBD +te_D lande_N
        bituene_P ham_PRO

        When_P syre_NPR Ector_NPR beheld_VBD the_D swerd_N 
        he_PRO retorned_VBD ageyne_ADV

        When_P I_PRO cam_VBD home_N for_P my_PRO$ broders_N$ 
        swerd_N I_PRO fond_VBD nobody_Q+N at_P home_N

Comparative SO, AS, THAN

Comparative clauses and complements are introduced by SO/SWA/SE/etc., AS/ALSE/ALSWA/etc. and THAN, all of which are tagged P in this context. Separated AL SWA is tagged al_Q swa_P.
        hie_PRO hauen_HVP al_Q swa_ADVR michel_Q swa_P hie_PRO 
        +dar_ADV uppe_P l+anden_VBP ,_,

        Nis_NEG+BEP me_PRO nan_Q ofrende_N swa_ADVR lief_ADJ 
        swa_P godes_NPR$ luue_N and_CONJ alre_Q mannes_NS$

        Toward_P +te_D preostes_N$ tiden_N hercni+d_VBI se_ADVR 
        for+d_ADV se_P +ge_PRO ma+gen_MD ,_.

        he_PRO nis_NEG+BEP nawiht_NEG alse_ADVR leful_ADJ alse_P 
        him_PRO bi-houede_VBD

        ha_PRO make_VBD him_PRO sunegen_VB on_P hire_PRO swa_ADVR
        hali_ADJ as_P he_PRO wes_BED

        Al_Q swa_P +de_D angel_N was_BED +gedriuen_VAN ut_RP of_P heuene_N 
        riche_N for_P modinesse_N ,_, swa_ADV was_BED Adam_NPR ,_,

        for_CONJ alswa_P weter_N acwenche+d_VBP fur_N ;_, alswa_ADV
        acwenche+d_VBP sunne_N ._.

        and_CONJ swa_ADV se_P +tu_PRO for+geuest_VBP +tam_D monne_N 
        +te_C wi+d_P +te_PRO agulte+d_VBP ;_, swa_ADV +tin_PRO$ drihten_NPR
        for+geue+d_VBP +te_PRO +tine_PRO$ misdede_N ._.

        Nan_Q +ting_N ne_NEG fli+d_VBP mon_N sonre_ADVR +tenne_P his_PRO$
        a+gen_ADJ heorte_N ._.

        and_CONJ nime+d_VBP him_PRO .vii._NUM deofle_NS +te_C
        beo+d_BEP muchele_Q wurse_ADJR +tenne_P he_PRO

        but_CONJ I_PRO wote_VBP wel_ADV ye_PRO are_BEP of_P an_D 
        hyher_ADJ blood_N than_P I_PRO wende_VBD {of}_CODE ye_PRO were_BED

        for_CONJ as_ADV21 swa_ADV22 as_P mon_N islein_VAN is_BEP 
        grislich_ADJ &_CONJ atelich_ADJ in_P monnes_N$ ech+ge_N 
        alswa_ADV is_BEP +te_D sunnefule_ADJ bifor_P godes_NPR$ 
        echnen_NS ._.

Prepositional A (IN,ON)

This preposition often appears incorporated with the following word (AMISS, AWAY, ADAY, ANIGHT, ALIVE, ASUNDER, etc.), although in at least some cases it can appear separately as well. The treatment of these words is outlined in Section WORDS THAT ARE SOMETIMES TREATED AS SEPARATE PARTS.

Treatment of individual words


SO in a purpose or result SO THAT clause is tagged P.
        but_CONJ he_PRO come_VBD a+geynes_P him_PRO
        with_P a_D strong_ADJ power_N ,_, so_P +tat_C
        Morgan_NPR derst_MD nou+gt_NEG abide_VB ._,
For SO/SWA in comparatives, see Section COMPARATIVE SO, AS, THEN.

ALSWA, etc.

ALSWA appears both separated and together, and in various reduced forms (ALSO, ALSE, ALS, AS, AS SWA). In prepositional use, when separated, it is tagged al_Q swa_P, and when together just as P. It is tagged alswa_P or al_Q swa_P in the following cases:

In adverbial AS clauses

        Luue_VBI +dine_PRO$ nexte_ADJ al_Q swa_P +de_PRO seluen_N ,_,

        '_' I_PRO wylle_VBP wel_ADV ,_, '_' said_VBD the_D kynge_N ,_, 
        '_' as_P thow_PRO wilt_MD have_HV it_PRO ._. '_'

        and_CONJ the_D same_ADJ nyght_N ,_, as_P I_PRO shal_MD 
        ansuer_VB unto_P God_NPR ,_, this_D child_N was_BED 
        begoten_VAN upon_P me_PRO


AS is labelled P following SUCH.
        and_CONJ suche_SUCH knyghtes_NS as_P Uther_NPR Pendragon_NPR 
        loved_VBD best_ADVS

        ye_PRO shall_MD sende_VB unto_P me_PRO three_NUM knyghtes_NS 
        of_P youres_PRO$ suche_SUCH as_P ye_PRO truste_VBP

For ALSWA in comparatives, see Section COMPARATIVE SO, AS, THEN. When non-subordinating, ALSWA is tagged alswa_ADV, al_Q swa_ADV, or as_ADV21 swa_ADV22. See Section SO, AS.


BECAUSE and AMID(DES) are always tagged P+N (because they can take OF complements), and when separated by_P cause_N, a_P mid_N, but BESIDE(S) is tagged P, and when separated be_P21 side(s)_P22.
        And_CONJ bycause_P+N of_P his_PRO$ armoure_N and_CONJ 
        shylde_N I_PRO am_BEP sure_ADJ I_PRO shall_MD ryde_VB 
        in_P pease_N

        but_CONJ Balynes_NPR$ oste_N myght_MD $not_NEG be_BE 
        lette_VAN in_RP because_P+N he_PRO had_HVD no_Q lady_N

        and_CONJ wente_VBD into_P meny_Q londes_NS _CODE 
        by_P cause_N of_P marchaundise_N

        Me_MAN weorp_VBD ham_PRO mid_P tis_D ilke_ADJ word_N 
        amidde_P +te_D leie_N

        Her_ADV amidde_P+N wes_BED +tis_D meiden_N iset_VAN

        a_P mid_N +te_D menske_N of_P +ti_PRO$ neb_N

        &_CONJ he_PRO shal_MD dye_VB bisides_P +te_D Marche_N 
        of_P a_D straunge_ADJ lande_N

        and_CONJ tealde_VBD +te_D herdes_NS +te_C wakeden_VBD 
        ouer_P here_PRO$ oref_N ._, biside_P +te_D burch_N belleem_NPR ._.

        and_CONJ al_Q ny+gt_N +tat_D cloude_N abood_VBD by_P21 sides_P22
        his_PRO$ tente_N

        Wickednes_N shal_MD cumpasse_VB hym_PRO day_N and_CONJ 
        ny+gt_N vp_P his_PRO$ walles_NS ,_, and_CONJ trauail_N 
        and_CONJ vnry+gtfulnes_N amiddes_P+N of_P hym_PRO ._.

Note that AMIDEWARDE used as a preposition is tagged simply P following the rules for prepositions with WARD. See Section WARD.


NOTWITHSTANDING, SAVING, and TOUCHING are tagged P when they take a complement noun or clause. NOTWITHSTANDING is tagged ADV when used absolutely.
        and_CONJ chalenged_VBD +te_D crowne_N ,_, 
        notwithstandyng_P his_PRO$ oth_N +tat_C he_PRO 
        had_HVD mad_VBN ._.

        And_CONJ notwithstanding_P +te_D emperour_N in_P his_PRO$ 
        owne_ADJ persone_N exhorted_VBD him_PRO to_P +tis_D 
        vnite`_N ,_, and_CONJ he_PRO hite_VBD +te_D emperour_N +tat_C 
        he_PRO schuld_MD withdrawe_VB his_PRO$ obediens_N fro_P 
        +tat_D same_ADJ Petir_NPR ,_, al_Q availed_VBD not_NEG ,_.
        but_CONJ natwythstondyng_ADV his_PRO$ worshyp_N 
        is_BEP knowyn_VAN in_P many_Q dyverse_ADJ contreis_NS ._.

        alle_Q the_D remenaunt_N of_P Normandy_NPR ,_, savyng_P

        +tou_PRO wost_VBP neuer_ADV what_WPRO ,_, sauyng_P +tat_C 
        +tou_PRO felist_VBP in_P +ti_PRO$ wille_N a_D nakid_ADJ 
        entent_N vnto_P God_NPR ._.

        and_CONJ in_P hym_PRO was_BED +te_D ende_N of_P +te_D 
        empere_N touchynge_P Charles_NPR his_$ ofspringe_N ._.

Note that TOUCHING in AS TOUCHING X is tagged VAG.


+TA +TA in the meaning WHEN (THAT) is tagged +ta_P +ta_C.
        Godd_NPR he_PRO unwur+dede_VBD +da_P +ta_C he_PRO +dolede_VBD 
        +dat_C his_PRO$ wi+derwine_N him_PRO ouercam_VBD


A+TET (and variations) meaning UNTIL is treated as a unit, since it takes NP complements as well as clauses.
        +Teos_D Meiden_N +tet_C ich_PRO munie_VBP stot_VBD +turh_P 
        +teos_D steauene_N stercliche_ADV istrenget_VAN ant_CONJ 
        abad_VBD baldeliche_ADV a+det_P me_MAN com_VBD

        +tt_C neauer_ADV a+det_P tes_D dei_N ne_NEG funde_VBD we_PRO 
        nohwer_Q+WADV nan_Q swa_ADVR deop_ADV ilearet_VAN +te_C 
        durste_MD sputi_VB wi+d_P us_PRO

        ne_CONJ we_PRO nusten_NEG+VBD hwet_WPRO we_PRO duden_DOD 
        a_P21 +det_P22 he_PRO undutte_VBD us_PRO