## Types of Subordinate Clauses (CP, IP)

That Clauses (CP-THT)
Degree Complements (CP-DEG)
Comparative Clauses (CP-CMP)
Question (CP-QUE)
Exclamations (CP-EXL)
Relative Clauses (CP-REL)
Reduced relatives (RRC)
Free Relative Clauses (CP-FRL)
It-cleft (CP-CLF)
Tough-movement Complement (CP-TMC)
Infinitival Clauses (IP-INF)
Infinitival Relative/Purpose Infinitive (CP-EOP)
Small Clauses (IP-SMC)
Adjunct Participial Clauses and Verbal Gerunds (IP-PPL)
Absolute Clauses (IP-ABS, IP-INF-ABS)

All subordinate clauses that are headed by a complementizer are labelled CP. In addition, there are four types of subordinate clauses whose primary label is IP (infinitives, small clauses, adjunct participials and absolutes). All subordinate clauses, both CP and IP, have an additional label indicating their type.

Clauses headed by the complementizer THAT
V1 conditionals
AS clauses
AS clauses without a gap
AS clauses with a gap
AS X SAID

Clauses labelled CP-ADV are either the complement of a preposition (subordinating conjunction) (see Section PREPOSITIONS TAKING CLAUSAL COMPLEMENTS) or stand alone but function as adverbials. The clausal object of the preposition rather than the dominating prepositional phrase receives the marking as an adverbial clause but the adverbial function is, of course, the function of the clausal PP as a whole.

Bare CP-ADV clauses are of three types:

### Clauses headed by the complementizer THAT

```( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ (NPR sir) (NPR Launcelot))
(VBD smote)
(NP-OB1 (PRO hym))
(RP downe)
(, ,)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VBD lay)
(PP (P in)
(NP (D a) (N sowghe)))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,199.3125))

( (IP-IMP-SPE (CONJ and)
(VBI hange)
(NP-OB1 (PRO\$ my) (N swerde))
(PP (P uppon)
(NP (D a) (N bowghe)))
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
(MD may)
(VB gete)
(NP-OB1 (PRO hit))))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMMALORY,206.3377))

```
With the verbs SEND and WARN.
```( (IP-MAT (ADVP (ADV So))
(NP-SBJ (D the) (N Archebisshop))
(PP (P by)
(PP (P of)
(NP (NPR Merlyn)))))
(VBD send)
(PP (P for)
(NP (Q alle) (D the) (NS lordes)
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(NX (NS gentilmen)
(PP (P of)
(NP (NS armes)))))))
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
(MD shold)
(VB come)
(PP (P by)
(NP (NPR Crystmasse)))
(PP (FP even)
(P unto)
(NP (NPR London)))))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMMALORY,7.188))

(NODE (IP-INF (TO to)
(VB sende)
(NP-OB1 (NS messangeris))
(PP (P into)
(NP (Q al) (NPR Israel)
(, ,)
(PP (P fro)
(NP (NPR Bersabee)))
(PP (P (P21 til) (P22 to))
(NP (NPR Dan)))))
(, ,)
(IP-SUB (IP-SUB-1 (NP-SBJ (PRO thei))
(MD schulden)
(VB come))
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(IP-SUB=1 (VB make)
(PP (P to)
(NP (D the) (NPR Lord) (NPR God)
(PP (P of)
(NP (NPR Israel)))))
(PP (P in)
(NP (NPR Jerusalem))))))))
(ID CMPURVEY,I,26.1315))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO tu))
(BEP bie)
(VAN +gewarned)
(, ,)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO tu))
(NEG ne)
(VBP fol+ghi)
(NP-OB1 (Q none) (N+NS dwelmenn)
(, ,)
(CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
(C +de)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(NP-MSR (Q muchel))
(VBP misleue+d)))))))
(ID CMVICES1,27.306))

```

### V1 conditionals

Note that the fact that the tensed verb is in C in these clauses is not shown directly, but rather by the fact that no C position is indicated (as also in YES/NO questions, see YES/NO QUESTIONS).
```(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +tu))
(MD mi+gtest)
(HV haue)
(VBN falle)
(PP (P in)
(, ,)
(NP-SBJ (D +te) (N mercy)
(PP (P of)
(NP (NPR Crist))))
(VBN ikepte))))
(ID CMAELR3,53.858))

( (IP-MAT (IP-MAT-1 (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ *con*)
(VBN slayne)
(NP-OB1 (PRO hym)))
(CONJP (CONJ or)
(IP-MAT=1 (VBN takyn)
(NP-OB1 (PRO hym))))
(, ,)
(NEG nat)
(NP-SBJ (D the) (ADJ good) (N knyght)
(PP (P with)
(NP (D the) (ADJ rede) (NS armys))))
(VBN com)
(PP (P by)
(PP (P into)
(NP (D tho) (NS partys)))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,661.4665))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (NEG Ne)
(MD mai)
(NP-SBJ (Q nan) (ADJ muche) (N \$speche)
(CODE {TEXT:spelche}))
(BE beon)
(PP (P (P21 wi+d) (P22 uten))
(NP (N sunne)))
(VBP ginne)
(NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
(E_S .))(ID CMANCRIW,II.61.626))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CP-ADV-SPE (IP-SUB-SPE (VBP wite)
(NP-SBJ (PRO ich))
(NP-OB1 (PRO\$ mi) (N tunge))))
(, .)
(NP-SBJ (PRO ich))
(MD mai)
(VB halden)
(NP-OB1 (D +te) (N wei)
(PP (P toward)
(NP (NPR heouene))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMANCRIW,II.63.661))

```
For ALL BE IT clauses, see Section ALL BE IT, ETC.

### AS clauses

Non-comparative, non-relative AS clauses are treated as adverbials. We have isolated the following types:

### AS clauses without a gap

In this type of AS clause, AS is treated as a preposition (i.e. a subordinating conjunction) (see Section PREPOSITIONS) and means WHEN, WHILE, SINCE, AS IF etc.
```( (IP-MAT (ADVP (ADV So))
(PP (P as)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
(VBD rode)
(PP (P to)
(NP (D the) (NS justes) (WARD ward))))))
(NP-SBJ (NPR sir) (NPR Kay))
(VBN lost)
(NP-OB1 (PRO\$ his) (N suerd))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMMALORY,8.214))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
(PP (P as)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NPR kynge) (NPR Arthure))
(VBD loked)
(PP (P besyde)
(NP (PRO hym))))))
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VBD sawe)
(NP-OB1 (D a) (N knyght)
(CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
(C that)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(BED was)
(VAN horsed))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,26.818))

```

### AS clauses with a gap

AS clauses that can can be paraphrased as IN THE SAME WAY THAT have an adverbial empty operator. In these clauses AS often has a specifier LIKE/JUST/SO/RIGHT/etc. Note, however, that correlatives of the the type AS... , SO... are treated as comparatives rather than adverbial AS clauses (see Section AS... SO CLAUSES).
```( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
(NP-SBJ (PRO I))
(VBP wylle)
(, ,)
(' ')
(IP-MAT-PRN (VBD said)
(NP-SBJ (D the) (N kynge)))
(, ,)
(' ')
(PP (P as)
(C 0)
(NP-SBJ (PRO thow))
(MD wilt)
(HV have)
(NP-OB1 (PRO it)))))
(E_S .)
(' '))
(ID CMMALORY,4.76))

(NP-SBJ (D this))
(BED was)
(DAN done)
(PP (P as)
(C 0)
(NP-SBJ (PRO they))
(VBD devysed))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,4.87))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
(PP (P whan)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NPR syre) (NPR Ector))
(BED was)
(VBN come))))
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(NP-OB1 (N fyaunce))
(PP (P to)
(NP (D the) (N kyng)))
(IP-INF (FOR for) (TO to)
(VB nourisshe)
(NP-OB1 (D the) (N child))
(P as)
(C 0)
(NP-SBJ (D the) (N kynge))
(VBD desyred)))))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMMALORY,6.147))

```
AS clauses in which AS can be paraphrased as WHICH have a nominal empty operator. These may be arguments of the matrix verb (DO AS I SAY), in which case they are treated as free relatives (see Section AS FREE RELATIVES, or AS X SAID clauses (see Section AS X SAID) or as continuative relatives (see Section AS CONTINUATIVE RELATIVES).

### AS X SAID

The phrase AS X SAID/WROTE/ETC. is labelled as a parenthetical PP dominating a CP-ADV clause with a nominal gap when the content of the rest of the clause is what is being referred to. If the rest of the clause is actually a direct quote, then the entire clause is also labelled as speech. Similar phrases such as AS YOU KNOW WELL, etc. are also treated in the same way.
```(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (N feblenesse)
(PP (P of)
(NP (N age))))
(VBP denye)
(NP-OB1 (N power)
(PP (P of)
(NP (N dede))))
(, ,)
(PP-PRN (P as)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO +tey))
(VBP seyn)))))
(ID CMAELR3,30.121))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-1 (EX ther))
(BEP is)
(NP-1 (Q no) (N wight)
(CP-REL (WNP-2 0)
(C that)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-2)
(HVP hath)
(PP (P save)
(NP (NPR God) (FP allone))))
(, ,)
(PP-PRN (P as)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-3)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he)
(NP-PRN (PRO+N hymself)))
(VBP recordeth)
(PP (P in)
(NP (PRO\$ hys) (N Evaungelie)))))))
(ID CMCTMELI,220.C2.139))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ For)
(NP-SBJ (D thes) (NUM eleven) (NS kyngis))
(MD shall)
(VB dye)
(PP (Q all)
(P in)
(NP (ONE one) (N day)))
(PP (P by)
(NP (D the) (ADJ grete) (N myght)
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(NX (N prouesse)))
(PP (P of)
(NP (NS armys)))
(PP (P of)
(NP (NUM two) (ADJ valyaunte) (NS knyghtes)))))
(, ,)
(' ')
(, -)
(PP-PRN (P as)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
(VBP tellith)
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,31.996))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ and)
(NP-TMP (D the) (ADJ same) (N nyght))
(, ,)
(PP-PRN (P as)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO I))
(MD shal)
(VB ansuer)
(PP (P unto)
(NP (NPR God))))))
(, ,)
(NP-SBJ (D this) (N child))
(BED was)
(VAN begoten)
(PP (P upon)
(NP (PRO me)))
(E_S .)
(' '))
(ID CMMALORY,5.129))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D An) (N hemme))
(, ,)
(PP-PRN (P as)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO +tu))
(VBP wost)
(, ,)
(BEP is)
(NP-OB1 (D +te) (ADJ laste) (N ende)
(PP (P of)
(NP (D a) (N clo+t))))
(E_S ;))(ID CMAELR3,34.225))

```

### That Clauses (CP-THT)

That clause complements
That clause complements of verbs
That clause complements of nouns
Extraposed that clauses
Subject that clauses in situ
Extraposed subject that clauses
Appositive that clauses
CP-recursion

That clauses act as complements to verbs, nouns, and adjectives.

### That clause complements of verbs

```( (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
(VBP suppose)
(CP-THT-SPE (C that)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
(BEP ar)
(VAN displesyd)
(CP-THT-SPE (C that)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
(HVP have)
(VBN shewed)
(NP-OB2 (PRO you))
(NP-OB1 (N unkyndnesse))))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,48.1574))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ But)
(NP-SBJ (PRO I))
(VBP pray)
(NP-OB2 (PRO you))
(, ,)
(, ,)
(CP-THT-SPE (C that)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
(VBP tarry)
(NEG nat)
(PP (P frome)
(NP (PRO me)))))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMMALORY,48.1583))

```

### That clause complements of nouns

```( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ (PRO she))
(BED was)
(NP-OB1 (N causer)
(CP-THT-SPE (C that)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO\$ my) (N modir))
(BED was)
(VAN brente))))
(PP (P thorow)
(NP (PRO\$ hir) (N falsehode)
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(NX (N trechory)))))
(E_S .)
(' '))
(ID CMMALORY,49.1625))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(PP (P by)
(NP (N cause)
(CP-THT (C that)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
(BED was)
(PP (P beforn)
(, ,)
(NP-SBJ (PRO I))
(VBD turned)
(NP-OB1 (PRO\$ my) (N riet)))
(ID CMASTRO,670.C1.230))

```

### That clause complements of adjectives

```(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D a) (N man))
(MD mot)
(BE be)
(CP-THT (C +tat)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VBP take)
(NEG not)
(NP-OB1 (QP (ADVR to) (Q litel))
(N hede))
(PP (P of)
(NP (PRO\$ his) (N body)))))))
(ID CMAELR3,31.148))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
(, ,)
(' ')
(IP-MAT-PRN (VBD seyde)
(NP-SBJ (NPR Balyne)))
(, ,)
(' ')
(NP-SBJ (PRO I))
(BEP am)
(CP-THT-SPE (C that)
(IP-SUB-SPE
(NP-SBJ (PRO\$ my) (N lorde)
(NP-PRN (NPR Arthure)))
(BEP ys)
(PP (P with)
(NP (PRO me))))))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMMALORY,52.1746))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ And)
(PP (P+N bycause)
(PP (P of)
(NP (PRO\$ his) (N armoure)
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(NX (N shylde))))))
(NP-SBJ (PRO I))
(BEP am)
(CP-THT-SPE (C 0)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
(MD shall)
(VB ryde)
(PP (P in)
(NP (N pease))))))
(E_S .)
(' '))
(ID CMMALORY,198.3079))

```

### Extraposed that clauses

THAT CLAUSES extraposed out of NPs or ADJPs are co-indexed to a trace (CP-THT *IHC*) within the NP/ADJP.
```( (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-SBJ (D Thys))
(BED was)
(NP-OB1 (D the) (N cause)
(CP-THT-SPE *ICH*-1))
(, ,)
(NP-VOC (N damesell))
(, ,)
(CP-THT-SPE-1 (C that)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
(VBD com)
(PP (P into)
(NP (D thys) (N courte)))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,50.1673))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
(BED was)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(CP-THT *ICH*-1))
(PP (P by)
(NP (PRO\$ hys) (NS armys)))
(CP-THT-1 (C that)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-2 (EX there))
(VBD com)
(IP-PPL (VAG rydyng))
(NP-2 (PRO\$ hys) (N brothir)
(NP-PRN (NPR Balan)))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,52.1732))

```

### Subject that clauses in situ

Subject that clauses that are not extraposed are labelled CP-THT-SBJ.
```( (IP-MAT (CP-THT-SBJ (C +Tat)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D +tes) (NS seruauntis))
(VBD telde)
(NP-OB2 (D +tis) (N kyng))
(CP-THT (C +tat)
(IP-SUB (PP (P in)
(NP (D +te) (ADJ seuen+te) (N
howr)))
(NP-SBJ (N feuer))
(VBD forsooke)
(NP-OB1 (D +tis) (N child))))))
(VBP bytokne+t)
(NP-OB1 (D a) (ADJ greet) (N witt))
(, ,)
(PP-PRN (P as)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (NPR Robard)
(PP (P of)
(NP (NPR Lyncolne))))
(VBP schewe+t))))
(E_S .)) (ID CMWYCSER,307.1439))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
(CP-THT-SBJ (C +tat)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NPR Abraham))
(MD schulde)
(BE be)))
(BEP is)
(NP-OB1 (N trew+te)
(PP (P wi+towten)
(NP (N eende))))
(E_S .)) (ID CMWYCSER,422.3543))

```

### Extraposed subject that clauses

That clauses "extraposed" from subject position are co-indexed to the expletive subject, whether overt or empty. Clauses of the IT SEEMS THAT... type are also treated in this way.
```( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ-1 (PRO hit))
(BEP ys)
(CP-THT-SPE-1 (C 0)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(MD shall)
(NEG nat)
(VB endure)
(NP-MSR (FP but) (D a) (N whyle))))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMMALORY,51.1680))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
(NP-SBJ-1 *exp*)
(PP (P as)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VBD paste)
(PP (P beyonde)
(NP (D the) (N castell))))))
(NP-OB2 (PRO hym))
(VBD thought)
(CP-THT-1 (C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VBD herde)
(IP-INF (NP-SBJ (NS bellys))
(VB rynge))))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMMALORY,205.3340))

```

### Appositive that clauses

That clauses are often in apposition to a demonstrative or other NP. In this case the NP is labeled as the argument of the verb and the that clause is labelled as an appositive/parenthetical. If the that clause is extraposed, a co-indexed trace of the that clause within the coreferential constituent indicates the relationship between the two. See also Section APPOSITIVE OR PARENTHETICAL.
```( (IP-IMP (VBI Take)
(NP-OB1 (N heed))
(PP (P of)
(NP (ONE oo) (N thynge)
(, ,)
(CP-THT-PRN (C that)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO thou))
(VBP slepe)
(NEG not)
(PP (P whan)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO thou))
(MD shuldest)
(VB wake))))))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMAELR4,6.167))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-SBJ (D that)
(CP-THT-PRN *ICH*-1))
(NP-OB2 (PRO me))
(VBP forthynkith)
(CP-THT-PRN-SPE-1 (C that)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
(HVP have)
(VBN greved)
(NP-OB1 (NP (NPR kynge) (NPR Arthure))
(CONJP (CONJ or)
(NP (Q ony)
(PP (P of)
(NP (PRO\$ hys) (N courte))))))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,51.1698))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (NPR Crist))
(NP-OB1 (PRO hit)
(CP-THT-PRN *ICH*-1))
(VBP wat)
(CP-THT-PRN-1 (C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO \$ha)
(CP-REL *ICH*-2))
(BEP \$beo+d)
(CODE {TEXT:hebeo+d})
(CONJP (CONJ &)
(CP-REL-2 (WNP-3 0)
(C +te)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-3)
(PP (P wi+d)
(NEG ne)
(VBP fechte+d)))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMANCRIW,II.196.2809))

```

### CP-recursion

In CP-recursion contexts, the complementizer THAT is sometimes repeated. The structure of these cases is as follows:
```(CP-THT (C that)
(CP-THT (TOPIC ...)
(C that)
(IP-SUB ...)))
```
```( (IP-MAT (ADVP-TMP (ADV +Ta))
(VBD be+tohte)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(NP-OB2 (PRO him))
(CP-THT (C +tet)
(CP-THT (PP-1 (P gif)
(LB |)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(MD mihte)
(BE ben)
(PP (P on)
(NP (NPR Engleland))))))
(C +tet)
(IP-SUB (PP *ICH*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(MD mihte)
(HV habben)
(NP-OB1 (Q eal) (PRO\$ his) (N wille)))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMPETERB,49.224))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +du))
(BEP be)
(VAN iwarned)
(, ,)
(CP-THT (PP-2 (P +gif)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NPR godd))
(NP-OB2 (PRO +de))
(VBP +gif+d)
(NP-OB1 (D +tese) (ADJ swete) (NS teares)))))
(, ,)
(C +tat)
(IP-SUB (PP *ICH*-2)
(NP-SBJ (Q non) (N win)
(PP (P in)
(NP (D +dare) (N world))))
(NEG+BEP nis)
(ID CMVICES1,149.1856))

```

### Degree Complements (CP-DEG)

Extraposed degree complements
SO... THAT clauses
ALL THAT... degree clauses
Degree infinitives
Degree infinitives with a gap
Complementizers in degree clauses

Degree complement clauses are enclosed within the parens of the constituent containing their associated degree word.

```( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ *con*)
(VBD smote)
(NP-OB1 (NPR sir) (NPR Sagramoure))
(CP-DEG (C that)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (N horse) (CONJ and) (N man))
(VBD wente)
(Q bothe)
(PP (P to)
(NP (D the) (N erthe))))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,200.3170))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ And)
(PP (P yf)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO\$ my) (N lorde)
(NP-PRN (PRO\$ my) (N husbande)))
(VBP wete)
(NP-OB1 (PRO hit)))))
(, ,)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(BEP is)
(CP-DEG-SPE (C that)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(MD wyll)
(VB sle)
(NP-OB1 (PRO me)))))
(E_S .)
(' '))
(ID CMMALORY,205.3353))

```

### Extraposed degree complements

When extraposed, degree complements are co-indexed to a trace inside the brackets of their associated constituent.
```( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ (NPR sir) (NPR Launcelot))
(VBD charged)
(CP-DEG *ICH*-1))
(PP (P uppon)
(NP (PRO hym)))
(CP-DEG-1 (C that)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO\$ his) (N horse))
(VBD reversed)
(E_S ,))
(ID CMMALORY,201.3194))

(NP-SBJ (NPR kynge) (NPR Arthure))
(DOD dud)
(CP-DEG *ICH*-1))
(PP (P in)
(NP (NS armys)))
(CP-DEG-1 (C that)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (Q all) (NS men))
(NP-OB1 (N wondir))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,22.691))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ for)
(NP-SBJ (PRO\$ oure) (NS synnes))
(BED were)
(CP-DEG-SPE *ICH*-1))
(PP (P at)
(NP (D that) (N tyme)))
(CP-DEG-SPE-1 (C that)
(Q all)))
(BED was)
(NP-OB1 (N wyckednesse))))
(E_S .)
(' '))
(ID CMMALORY,643.4044))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VBD gaff)
(NP-OB2 (PRO hym))
(CP-DEG *ICH*-1))
(D a) (N falle)
(CP-DEG-1 (C that)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D the) (N horse))
(VBD felle)
(PP (RP downe)
(P to)
(NP (D the) (N erthe))))))
(E_S .))(ID CMMALORY,23.719))

```

### SO... THAT clauses

Separated SO... THAT clauses are always treated as degree clauses and not as SO... THAT purpose or result clauses (see Section SO THAT).
```( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (N Wra+d+de))
(IP-MAT-PRN (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VBP sei+d))
(PP (P hwil)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
(VBP lest))))
(VBP Ablinde+d)
(CP-DEG *ICH*-1))
(NP-OB1 (D +te) (N heorte))
(, .)
(CP-DEG-1 (C +tt)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ha))
(NEG ne)
(MD mei)
(NP-OB1 (N so+d))
(VB icnawen)))
(E_S .))
(ID CMANCRIW,II.96.1152))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(CP-DEG *ICH*-1))
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VBD drove)
(PP (P over)
(NP (NP-POS (D the) (N\$ horse))
(N tayle)))
(, ,)
(CP-DEG-1 (C that)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO\$ his) (N helme))
(VBD smote)
(PP (P into)
(NP (D the) (N erthe)))
(NP-MSR (NP (D a) (N foote))
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(NP (QR more))))
(, ,)
(NP-SBJ (PRO\$ his) (N nek))
(BED was)
(VAN broke)))))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMMALORY,188.2720))

```

### ALL THAT... degree clauses

ALL THAT degree clauses in the meaning AS MUCH AS are done with as measure NPs.
```( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ *con*)
(VBD (VBD robbit) (CONJ and) (VBD quellede))
(NP-OB1 (N folc))
(, ,)
(NP-MSR (Q al)
(CP-DEG (WNP-1 0)
(C +tat)
(IP-SUB (NP-MSR *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(MD might)
(VB *))))
(E_S .))(ID CMBRUT3,226.4097))

(NODE (IP-INF-2 (VB g+atenn)
(NP-OB1 (PRO +te))
(LB |)
(LB |)
(NP-MSR (Q All)
(CP-DEG (WNP-3 0)
(C +tatt)
(NP-SBJ (PRO +gho))
(MD ma+g+g)
(VB *))))
(PP (P fra)
(NP (N sinne))))(ID CMORM,I,214.1767))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
(NP-SBJ *con*)
(BED w+as)
(NP-MSR (Q eall)
(CP-DEG (WNP-1 0)
(C +tet)
(IP-SUB (NP-MSR *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(MD (MD mihte) (CONJ &) (MD cu+de))
(VB *))))
(E_S .))(ID CMPETERB,43.54))

```

### Degree infinitives with a gap

Degree infinitives with a gap are labelled CP-DEG with an infinitival complement. Degree infinitives without a gap are labelled IP-INF-DEG. See Section DEGREE INFINITIVES WITHOUT A GAP.
```( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ &)
(NP-SBJ *con*)
(HVP hast)
(VBN seyd)
(CP-DEG-SPE (WNP-1 0)
(IP-INF-SPE (TO to)
(BE be)
(VAN brent)
(PP (P for)
(NP *T*-1)))))
(E_S .)
(" "))(ID CMKEMPE,133.3127))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(CP-DEG (WNP-2 0)
(IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-2)
(TO to)
(DO do))))
(PP (P in)
(NP (N amendynge)
(PP (P of)
(NP (PRO\$ his) (N lyf)))))
(PP (P by)
(NP (N confession))))
(ID CMAELR4,13.351))

```

### Complementizers in degree clauses

Degree clauses are generally introduced by THAT but occasionally by AS or by nothing.
```( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ And)
(PP (P if)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
(MD woll)
(VB abyde)
(PP (P in)
(NP (D thys) (N courte)))
(PP (P amonge)
(NP (PRO\$ my) (N felyship))))))
(, ,)
(NP-SBJ (PRO I))
(MD shall)
(CP-DEG-SPE *ICH*-1))
(VB avaunce)
(NP-OB1 (PRO \$you))
(CP-DEG-SPE-1 (C as)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
(MD shall)
(BE be)
(E_S .)
(' '))
(ID CMMALORY,48.1578))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ but)
(NP-SBJ (PRO she))
(VBD helde)
(NP-OB1 (PRO hit))
(CP-DEG (C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(MD myght)
(NEG nat)
(VB take)
(NP-OB1 (PRO hit))
(PP (RP oute) (P of)
(NP (PRO\$ hir) (N honde)))
(PP (P but)
(PP (P yf)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(MD sholde)
(HV have)
(VBN hurte)
(NP-OB1 (PRO hir))))))))
)
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,52.1723))

```

### Comparative Clauses (CP-CMP)

Elision in comparative clauses
THE MORE THE MERRIER
AS...SO clauses
SUCH comparatives
Postposed SUCH and other quantifiers
Comparative subdeletion
THE \dots MORE comparatives
Implied comparatives

The external structure of comparatives is as follows. The whole comparison is treated as single constituent. The constituent is labeled according to the category of its head. For example, AS TALL AS... is labeled as an ADJP, MORE CAKE THAN... is labeled as an NP, etc. The comparative clause is taken as a complement of the preposition AS or THAN. When the PP headed by AS/THAN is extraposed, it leaves a trace within the constituent containing the head of the comparison. Internally, comparatives have an empty operator co-indexed with a trace indicating the elided target of the comparison. For comparative sub-deletion see Section COMPARATIVE SUBDELETION.

```(NODE (ADJP (Q muche) (ADJR bygger)
(PP (P than)
(C 0)
(BED was)
(NP-SBJ (NPR sir) (NPR Kay))))))
(ID CMMALORY,200.3172))

(PP (P as)
(C 0)
(NP-SBJ (PRO\$ hys) (N horse))
(MD myght)
(VB renne)))))
(ID CMMALORY,639.3917))

(NODE (NP (QR more) (N worshyp)
(PP (P than)
(CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO thou))
(VBP wotist)
(PP (P off)
(NP *T*-1))))))
(ID CMMALORY,40.1325))

```

### Elision in comparative clauses

Often, parts of the comparative clause are elided. If only one element is missing, it is usually indicated by the generic empty category (X *). If more is missing, in order to make the structure clearer an indication of what the missing part is is written in (in ModE) inside (CODE {...}).
```(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (QP (ADVR as) (Q many))
(PP *ICH*-2))
(MD mict)
(BE be)
(VAN turnyd)
(PP (P be)
(NP (PRO\$ hys) (N voys)))
(PP-2 (P as)
(CP-CMP (WNP-3 0)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-3)
(MD xulde)
(BE ben)
(VAN *)     <--- verb elided
(PP (P be)
(NP (PRO\$ thy) (N voys)))
(PP (P +gyf)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +tu))
(VBD prechedist)
(NP-PRN (PRO\$+N thy-selfe)))))))))
(ID CMKEMPE,149.3461))

(NODE (IP-INF (NP-SBJ (NP (NPR sir) (NPR Ulphuns))
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(NP (NPR sir) (NPR Brastias))))
(VB tarry)
(PP (P as)
(CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-MSR *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO they))
(MD wolde)
(VB *))))))
(ID CMMALORY,16.492))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO He))
(MD cou+te)
(PP *ICH*-1))
(VB understonde)
(NP-OB1 (D +te) (N longage)
(PP (P of)
(NP (NPR Grew))))
(PP-1 (P +tan)
(C 0)
(CODE {he_could})
(VB speke)
(NP-OB1 (PRO it)))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMPOLYCH,VI,255.1858))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ for)
(NP-SBJ-1 (PRO hit))
(BEP ys)
(PP *ICH*-2))
(CP-THT-SPE-1 (C 0)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
(VBP sle)
(NP-OB1 (D a) (N cowarde))))
(PP-2 (P than)
(C 0)
(CODE {it_is})
(CP-THT-SPE (C 0)
(IP-SUB-SPE (PP (P thorow)
(NP (D a) (N coward)))
(NP-SBJ (Q all) (PRO we))
(BEP be)
(VAN slayne))))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,27.865))

(NODE (IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO+N hemselff))
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(PP (P in)
(NP (N worship)))))
(PP (P than)
(C 0)
(CODE {they_think_themself_blessed_if})
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
(VBN gotyn)
(NP-OB1 (Q halff)
(D the) (N worlde)))))))))
(ID CMMALORY,659.4580))

```
If an entire clause which contains a trace is elided, the clause brackets are included but no internal structure is given except the trace. The content of the elided clause is included in (CODE {...}) to make the structure clearer.
```(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
(MD wol)
(VB venge)
(NP-OB1 (PRO yow))
(PP (P of)
(NP (D the) (N outrage)
(PP (P of)
(PP (P in)
(NP (OTHER oother) (N manere)
(PP (P than)
(CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB  (CP-THT (PP (P (CODE {in}))
(NP *T*-1))
(CODE {that_you_venge_yourself})
(NP-SBJ (N right))
(VBP comandeth))))))))

(ID CMCTMELI,232.C1.582))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ha))
(BED weren)
(CONJP (CONJ ant)
(PP (P as)
(C 0)
(CODE {that_they_were}))
(NP-SBJ (MAN me))
(VBD fore-seide))))))
(ID CMKATHE,27.132))

```

### THE MORE THE MERRIER

THE MORE, THE MERRIER clauses are treated as follows:
```( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ And)
(, ,)
(PP-PRN (P as)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (D the) (ADJ same) (NPR Senec))
(VBP seith))))
(, ,)
(' ')
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(ADJP (D the) (QR moore) (VAG shynyng)))
(C that)
(NP-SBJ (N Fortune))
(BEP is))))
(, ,)
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ (PRO she))
(BEP is)
(E_S .)
(' '))
(ID CMCTMELI,230.C1.510))

(C 0)
(NP-SBJ (PRO +tou))
(VBP prayes))))
(, ,)
(NP-SBJ (PRO +tou))
(VBP thynkis)
(E_S .))
(ID CMROLLTR,33.704))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(PP (P as)
(C 0)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VBD wyped)
(RP of)
(NP-OB1 (D a) (N drope)
(PP (P of)
(NP (N corrupcioun))))
(PP (P of)
(NP (PRO\$ his) (N nose)
(, ,)
(CP-REL (WNP-2 0)
(C +tat)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-2)
(BED was)
(NP-TMP (Q+N somtyme))
(VAN i-kutte)))))))))
(, ,)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(IP-INF (NP-SBJ *arb*)
(VB slee)
(NP-OB1 (Q som)
(PP (P of)
(NP (PRO\$ his) (NS enemyes)))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMPOLYCH,VI,171.1215))

```
When the comparison is on a noun in a THE MORE, THE MERRIER sentence, the noun is labeled NP-ADT, the label for non-argument NPs (Section NON-ARGUMENT (ADJUNCT) NP).
```( (IP-MAT (CONJ For)
(PP (P when)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NS men))
(HVP hase)
(VBN feled)
(NP-OB1 (Q oght)
(PP (P of)
(NP (D +tat) (N savoure)))))))
(, ,)
(CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO +tai))
(HVP have))))
(NP-OB1 (D +te) (QR mare))
(NP-SBJ (PRO +tai))
(VBP covayte)
(E_S ;))
(ID CMROLLEP,114.899))

( (IP-MAT (NP-ADT (D +Te) (QR mare)
(CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(HVP hauis)
(PP (P in)
(NP (N pouste))))))
(, ,)
(NP-OB1 (D +te) (QR mare)
(CP-EOP *ICH*-2))
(HVP hauis)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(CP-EOP-2 (WNP-3 0)
(IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-3)
(TO at)
(VB yelde)))
(E_S .))
(ID CMBENRUL,6.192))

(CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (BEP is)
(NP-SBJ (D +te) (N man)))))
(, /)
(NP-2 (QP (ADVR zuo) (Q moche)))
(BEP bye+t)
(NP-SBJ (PRO\$ his) (NS workes)))
(ID CMAYENBI,91.1772))

```

### AS...SO clauses

(RIGHT/SO/LIKE/EVER) AS... SO clauses are treated like adverbial THE MORE THE MERRIER constructions.
```( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
(PP (P as)
(C 0)
(NP-SBJ (NPR Arthur))
(VBD sped)
(DOD dyd)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(PP (P at)
(NP (NPR Eester)))
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,10.294))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
(PP (P as)
(C 0)
(NP-SBJ (Q euch) (N +ting))
(HVD hefde)
(NP-OB1 (N biginnunge))
(PP (P of)
(NP (PRO\$ his) (N godlec)))))))
(, ;)
(MD schulden)
(NP-SBJ (Q alle))
(HV habben)
(NP-OB1 (N endunge))
(, .)
(PP (P +gef)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(NP-OB1 (D +tt))
(VBD walde))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMKATHE,22.57))

(P alswo)
(C 0)
(NP-SBJ (D +de) (N lichame))
(NP-OB1 (Q none) (N strenc+te))
(NEG ne)
(MD mai)
(HV habben)
(PP (P wi+d-uten)
(NP (NS bonen))))))
(, ,)
(NEG ne)
(MD mai)
(NP-SBJ (NP (PRO ic))
(CONJP (CONJ ne)
(NP (Q non) (N saule))))
(NP-OB1 (N \$streng+te) (CONJ ne) (N mihte))
(HV habben)
(PP (P wi+d-uten)
(NP (D +dese) (ADJ hali) (NS mihten)))
(E_S .))
(ID CMVICES1,93.1099))

```

### SUCH comparatives

SUCH comparatives are different from SUCH degree complements because they have a gap. SUCH comparatives are treated in the same way as other comparatives, that is, we treat the whole constituent that contains the trace of the comparison marker (SUCH) as the gap (see Sections COMPARATIVE CLAUSES and DEGREE COMPLEMENTS).
```( (IP-MAT (CONJ for)
(NP-SBJ (PRO they))
(MD shulde)
(HV have)
(NP-OB1 (SUCH such) (N chere)
(PP (P as)
(CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(MD myght)
(BE be)
(PP (P for)
(NP (PRO them)))
(PP (P in)
(NP (D thys) (NS marchis)))))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,16.493))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
(NEG nat)
(BEN bene)
(NP-OB1 (SUCH such) (D a) (N knyght)
(PP (P as)
(CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
(BEP ar))))
(PP (P of)
(NP (N worship) (CONJ and) (N prouesse)))))
(ID CMMALORY,48.1577))

```

### Postposed SUCH and other quantifiers

When SUCH or other quantifiers are postposed (A KNIGHT SUCH AS HE IS) we still treat the comparative clause as a complement of the whole antecedant and not just of SUCH. Following general principles, SUCH is labelled ADJP in this position because it is postposed. Other quantifiers are labelled QP.
```( (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO +tou))
(MD schalt)
(HV haue)
(NP-OB1 (D a) (N chyld)
(CP-CMP-SPE (WNP-1 0)
(C +tat)
(NP-SBJ (Q noon))
(, ,)
(CONJP (CONJ ny)
(NP-SBJ *con*)
(MD schall)
(BE be)
(E_S .)
(' '))
(ID CMMIRK,16.448))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ *con*)
(VBD rode)
(NP-MSR (D a) (ADJ grete) (N pace)
(PP (P as)
(CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-MSR *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO\$ hys) (N horse))
(MD myght)
(VB dryve)))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,51.1686))

```

### Comparative subdeletion

Sometimes the target of the comparison in a comparative clause is not entirely elided. The implicit measure or degree phrase is missing, but the head noun phrase, adjective or similar constituent is present. This normally occurs when it's different from the overall head of the comparative. The missing measure or degree phrase in these cases is indicated by a NP-MSR trace inside the constituent containing the head.
```( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ-1 *exp*)
(BED weren)
(NP-1 (QP (ADVR swa) (Q felen))
(NS spechen)
(PP (P swa)
(CP-CMP (WNP-3 0)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-2 (EX +tere))
(NP-2 (NP-MSR *T*-3)
(NS wurhten))
(BED weren)))))
(E_S ;))
(ID CMLAMBX1,93.822))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO\$ his) (N body))
(VBD stickede)
(PP (P of)
(NP (NS Arwes)))
(PP (P as)
(CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D an) (N hirchone))
(BEP is)
(PP (P of)
(NP (NS prickes)))))))))
(ID CMBRUT3,107.3234))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(HVP ha+t)
(NP-OB1 (QR more) (N ioie)
(PP (P of)
(NP (D +te) (N fynding)
(, ,)
(PP (P +ten)
(CP-CMP (WNP-3 0)
(C 0)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(NP-OB1 (NP-MSR *T*-3)
(N sorow)
(PP (P of)
(NP (D +te) (N lesing)))))))))

(ID CMCLOUD,132.820))

(, ,)
(PP (P agayns)
(NP (D that) (VAN cursed) (N wanhope)))
(MD sholde)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VB thynke)
(CP-THT (C that)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D the) (NPR passion)
(PP (P of)
(NP (NPR Jhesu) (NPR Crist))))
(BEP is)
(IP-INF (FOR for) (TO to)
(VB bynde))
(PP (P than)
(CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (N synne))
(BEP is)
(IP-INF (FOR for) (TO to)                                                              (VB bynde)))))))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMCTPARS,327.C2.1673))

```

### THE \dots MORE comparatives

In Vices and Virtues, there are still a few of the THE MORE THE MERRIER type comparisons in which THE still retains its original meaning (TO THAT DEGREE more or less) and is separated from the quantifier. Exceptionally, in such cases, when THE is not separated from the rest of the constituent, it is labelled NP-MSR.
```( (IP-MAT (NP-MSR (D +de)
(CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(NP-MSR (NP-MSR *T*-1)
(QR more))
(BEP is)
(PP (P mid)
(NP (NP (NS deules))
(, ,)
(CONJP (NP (NS fondinges)
(PP (PP (P of)
(NP (NPR dieule)))
(CONJP (CONJ o+der)
(PP (P of)
(NP (N manne))))))))))))
(, ,)
(NP-MSR-2 (D +de))
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(BEP is)
(PP (P on)
(E_S .))
(ID CMVICES1,29.329))

( (IP-MAT (PP (P Gif)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +du))
(NP-OB1 (D +dis) (N liht))
(MD miht)
(VB isien))))
(, ,)
(NP-MSR (D +de)
(CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +du))
(BEP art))))
(, ,)
(ADVP (NP-MSR (D +te))        <--- THE labelled NP-MSR
(NP-SBJ *pro*)
(NP-OB1 (PRO +de) (N seluen))
(MD wilt)
(VB ne+derin)
(E_S .))
(ID CMVICES1,49.553))

```
The Lambeth Homilies has one comparative with THES, a genitive of extent, as the head of the comparison.
```
(NODE (IP-MAT-1 (CONJ ah)
(NP-MSR (D +tes)
(CP-CMP (WNP-2 0)
(C +te)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
(HVD heoueden)
(NP-OB1 (NP-MSR *T*-2)
(QR mare) (N wele))
(PP (P on)
(NP (D +tisse) (N liue))))))
(, .)
(NP-MSR-3 (D +tes))
(NP-SBJ (PRO we))
(MD ahte)
(TO to)
(BE beon)
(, .)
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(D +ta) (QR mare) (ADJ imete))))
(PP (Q al)
(P swa)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
(NP-OB1 (PRO\$ ure) (N wele))
(NEG+BED nere)))))
(ID CMLAMBX1,5.43))

```

### Implied comparatives

Implied comparatives do not have an overt comparative element modifying the head of the comparison, but otherwise they read like comparative clauses. We thus annotate them in the same way. There are two types:
1. like the AS SOON AS type, without the initial AS; most of these are of the form SOON AS
```(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO\$ ouwer) (N saule))
(VBP secli)
(PP (P se)
(C 0)
(NP-SBJ (PRO ha))
(BEP is)
(RP vte))))))
(ID CMANCRIW,II.41.367))

(PP (P swa)
(C 0)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(HVD h+afde)
(NP-OB1 (N wind))))))
(, ,)
(VBD ferde)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(PP (RP ofer) (LB |) (P into)
(NP (NPR Normandie)))
(E_S ;))
(ID CMPETERB,44.95))

```
2. like a SUCH comparative without an overt SUCH.
```( (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(BEP ys)
(NP-OB1 (NP (D a)
(N man)
(PP (P of)
(NP (PRO\$ hys) (N body)))
(PP (P as)
(CP-CMP-SPE (WNP-1 0)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (Q fewe))
(BEP bene)
(IP-PPL-SPE (VAG lyvynge))))))
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(NP (D a)
(N man))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,44.1454))

( (IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(TO to)
(VB lere)
(PP (P til)
(NP (NP (D a) (ADJ febyll) (N man))
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(NP (D a)
(, ,)
(PP (P als)
(CP-CMP (WNP-2 0)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-2)
(NP-SBJ (PRO I))
(BEP am)))))))
(ID CMROLLEP,108.762))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
(NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
(VBD ward)
(N pais)
(PP (P sua)
(CP-CMP (WNP-1 0)
(C +dat)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(BED was)
(E_S .))
(ID CMPETERB,59.623))

```

### Question (CP-QUE)

Direct questions
Indirect questions
YES/NO questions
WHETHER questions
IF questions
Indirect question subjects in situ
Main clause questions with uninverted order
YES/NO questions with WHETHER
Echo questions
In the second conjunct of questions

Direct and indirect questions are not differentiated by clause label; rather, indirect questions always contain a complementizer position, while direct questions do not. Note that, as usual, we do not show inverted verbs as filling the complementizer position; rather the complementizer position is omitted in the same way as in other V1 clauses, such as yes/no questions (Section YES/NO QUESTIONS), and verb-first conditionals (Section V1 CONDITIONALS).

```(CP-QUE (WXP ...)       <--- direct question
(IP-SUB (VERB)
(SUBJECT)))

(CP-QUE (WXP ...)       <--- indirect question
(C THAT/0)
(IP-SUB ...))

(CP-QUE (IP-SUB (VERB)      <--- yes/no question
(SUBJECT)))
```

### Direct questions

Direct questions are usually matrix clauses, but can appear in direct speech contexts as the complement of verbs, in which case they will have the extended tag -SPE (Section DIRECT SPEECH).
```( (CP-QUE-SPE (' ')
(BEP is)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he)))
(, ?)
(' ')
(IP-MAT-PRN (VBD said)
(NP-SBJ (D the) (N kyng)))
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,3.65))

( (CP-QUE-SPE (' ')
(VBD gate)
(NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
(NP-OB1 (D this) (N swerd)))
(, ?)
(' ')
(IP-MAT-PRN (VBD said)
(NP-SBJ (NPR sir) (NPR Ector))
(PP (P to)
(NP (NPR Arthur))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,9.242))

( (CP-QUE-SPE (' ')
(WNP-1 (WPRO What))
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(MD will)
(NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
(DO do))
(, ?)
(' ')
(IP-MAT-PRN (VBD said)
(NP-SBJ (NPR Merlyn))
(PP (P to)
(NP (D the) (NS kynges))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,13.384))

(VBD seyde)
(NP-SBJ (D the) (ADJ olde) (N man))
(, ,)
(' ')
(BEP ar)
(NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
(E_S ?)
(' '))
(ID CMMALORY,34.1100))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
(VBP praye)
(NP-OB2 (PRO the))
(, ,)
(CP-QUE-SPE (WNP-1 (WPRO what))
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(VBP hatte)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))))
(E_S ?))
(ID CMAELR4,20.582))

```

### Indirect questions

Indirect questions occur as complements to verbs and nouns; occasionally they appear as complete tokens, usually in the context of headings
```( (IP-IMP-SPE (' ')
(CP-QUE-SPE (WNP-1 (WPRO what))
(C 0)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
(VBP woll))))
(ID CMMALORY,48.1599))

( (IP-IMP-SPE (CONJ and)
(VBI telle)
(NP-OB2 (PRO hem))
(C 0)
(NP-SBJ (PRO I))
(HVP have)
(VBN spedde)))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMMALORY,49.1638))

(NODE (IP-INF-PRP (TO to)
(VB bryng)
(NP-OB1 (Q no) (N tydyng)
(C that)
(NP-SBJ (D the) (N Quene))
(BED was)))))
(ID CMGREGOR,213.1957))

```
Indirect questions may also be used in apposition to a demonstrative or other NP, in which case they carry the extended tag -PRN and if extraposed, are coindexed to a trace within the NP, to distinguish them from verbal complements which are free in the clause (see also Section THAT CLAUSES).
```( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D The) (ADJ laste) (N thyng)
(CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
(C that)
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (NS men))
(MD shal)
(VB understonde)
(PP (P in)
(NP (N contricioun))))))
(BEP is)
(NP-OB1 (D this)
(, :)
(IP-SUB (PP *T*-2)
(VBP avayleth)
(NP-SBJ (N contricioun)))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMCTPARS,296.C1a.333))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ but)
(NP-SBJ (PRO we))
(VBP knowen)
(NEG not)
(NP-OB1 (D this)
(, ,)
(CP-QUE-PRN (WPP-1 (P of)
(WNP (WPRO whennus)))
(C 0)
(IP-SUB-SPE (PP *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(BEP is))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMNTEST,IX,20.924))

(NP-SBJ (PRO +tou))
(MD maist)
(PP (P bi)
(NP (D +tat) (N si+gt)
(PP (P of)
(NP (NPR\$ Cristis) (N liif)))))
(, ,)
(VB (VB folowe) (CONJ and) (VB rule))
(NP-OB1 (PRO\$ +tin) (ADJ owne) (N conscience))
(PP (P in)
(NP (D +tis) (N poynt)
(, :)
(CP-QUE-PRN (CP-QUE (WNP-1 (WPRO whom))
(C 0)
(IP-SUB-3 (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO +tou))
(MD schalt)
(VB folowe)))
(, ,)
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(CP-QUE (WNP-2 (WPRO whom))
(C 0)
(IP-SUB=3 (NP-OB1 *T*-2)
(VB reffuse))))
(, ,)
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(CP-QUE (WPP-4 (P wi+t)
(WNP (WPRO whom)))
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (PP *T*-4)
(NP-SBJ (PRO +tou))
(MD maist)
(BE ben)
(, ,)
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(CP-QUE (WPP-5 (P with)
(WNP (WPRO whom)))
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (PP *T*-5)
(NP-SBJ (PRO +tou))
(MD schalt)
(BE be)
(E_S .))
(ID CMHILTON,12.79))

```

### YES/NO questions

YES/NO questions are usually matrix clauses, but can appear in direct speech contexts as the complement of verbs, in which case they will have the extended tag -SPE (Section DIRECT SPEECH).
```(NODE (CP-QUE-SPE (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-VOC (N Syre))
(, ,)
(MD shall)
(NP-SBJ (PRO\$ your) (N sone)
(NP-PRN (NPR Arthur)))
(BE be)
(NP-OB1 (N kyng))
(PP (P after)
(NP (PRO\$ your) (NS dayes)
(PP (P of)
(NP (D this) (N realme)))))
(PP (P with)
(NP (Q all) (D the) (N appertenaunce)))))
(ID CMMALORY,7.177))

( (CP-QUE-SPE (' ')
(IP-SUB-SPE (VBD Found)
(NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
(NP-OB1 (Q ony) (NS knyghtes))
(NP (D this) (N swerd))))
(, ?)
(' ')
(IP-MAT-PRN (VBD seid)
(NP-SBJ (NPR sir) (NPR Ector)))
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,9.248))

( (CP-QUE (' ')
(IP-SUB (NP-VOC (N Sir))
(, ,)
(' ')
(IP-MAT-PRN (VBD said)
(NP-SBJ (NPR Ector))
(PP (P unto)
(NP (NPR Arthur))))
(, ,)
(' ')
(MD woll)
(NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
(BE be)
(NP-OB1 (PRO\$ my)
(N lord))
(PP (P when)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
(BEP are)
(NP-OB1 (N kyng))))))
(E_S ?)
(' '))
(ID CMMALORY,9.272))

```

### WHETHER questions

In WHETHER questions, WHETHER is labelled WQ with no containing phrasal tag; the complementizer position is always represented as it is sometimes filled; no wh-trace is indicated except when WHETHER clearly retains its original meaning of WHICH OF TWO, in which case it is tagged WPRO and contained in a WNP.
```( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ *con*)
(NP-OB2 (PRO hym))
(CP-QUE (WQ whethir)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (IP-SUB-1 (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(BEP were)
(VAN wounded))
(CONJP (CONJ or)
(IP-SUB=1 (NEG none)))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,639.3936))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ but)
(PP (P and)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
(MD myght)
(VB preve)
(NP-OB1 (PRO hit)))))
(NP-SBJ (PRO I))
(MD wolde)
(VB weete)
(CP-QUE-SPE (WQ whether)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB-SPE (IP-SUB-SPE-1 (NP-SBJ (PRO thou))
(BED were)
(IP-INF-SPE (TO to)
(HV have)
(NP-OB1 (PRO hym)))))
(CONJP (CONJ or)
(IP-SUB-SPE=1 (NP-SBJ (PRO I))))))
(E_S .)
(' '))
(ID CMMALORY,34.1075))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ for)
(NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
(MD may)
(VB chose)
(CP-QUE-SPE (WQ whether)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
(MD woll)
(VB (VB dye) (CONJ other) (VB lyve))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,197.3040))

(MD maist)
(NP-SBJ (PRO thou))
(VB rekne)
(NP-OB1 (NP (Q bothe) (NS arches))
(, ,)
(CONJP (CONJ or)
(NP (Q every) (N porcioun)
(, ,)
(CP-REL
(WPP-1 (P of)
(WNP (WPRO whether)))
(C that)
(IP-SUB (PP *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ *exp*)
(NP-OB2 (PRO the))
(VBP liketh))))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMASTRO,672.C1.320))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ Ne)
(NEG+VBP nuten)
(NP-SBJ (PRO ha))
(PP (P of)
(NP (D +teos) (NUM twa)))
(, ;)
(CP-QUE-SPE (WNP-1 (WPRO hwe+der)) <--- which of two
(C 0)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(NP-OB2 (PRO ham))
(VBP +tunche+d)
(, .)
(PP (P for)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (Q ei+der))
(BEP is)
(E_S .))
(ID CMSAWLES,172.82))

```

WHETHER questions which are not direct questions or the complement of a verb, but fill an adverbial function are labelled CP-QUE-ADV.
```( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ for)
(NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
(MD shal)
(VB overcome)
(NP-OB1 (PRO hem)
(QP (Q all)))
(, ,)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB-SPE (IP-SUB-SPE-1
(NP-SBJ (PRO they))
(VBP wille))
(CONJP (CONJ or)
(IP-SUB-SPE=1 (NEG+VBP nylle)))))
(E_S .)
(' '))
(ID CMMALORY,13.372))

(NODE (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO Thou))
(BEP arte)
(PP (P in)
(NP (PRO\$ my) (N daungere)))
(, ,)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ-1 *exp*)
(NP-OB2 (PRO me))
(VBP lyste)
(IP-INF-SPE-1 (IP-INF-SPE (TO to)
(VB save)
(NP-OB1 (PRO the)))
(CONJP (CONJ or)
(IP-INF-SPE (TO *)
(VB sle)
(NP-OB1 (PRO the))))))))
(ID CMMALORY,40.1309))

```
WHETHER also introduces YES/NO questions in some texts. See Section YES/NO QUESTIONS WITH WHETHER. WHETHER is often used nominally in free relative clauses. See Section WHETHER FREE RELATIVES.

### IF questions

In indirect questions headed by IF, IF fills the complementizer position. When both IF and THAT are present, both are labelled C.
```( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
(NP-SBJ (D the) (N prynce))
(NP-OB2 (PRO hym))
(CP-QUE (C yf)
(C that)
(CODE )
(IP-SUB (IP-SUB-1 (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(MD wolde)
(VB for-sake)
(NP-OB1 (PRO\$ hys) (N heresy)))
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(IP-SUB=1 (VB be-leve)
(PP (P on)
(NP (D the) (N faythe)
(PP (P of)
(NP (Q alle) (ADJ Hooly) (NPR Chyrche)))))))))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMGREGOR,106.228))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ (PRO sche))
(NP-OB2 (PRO him))
(CP-QUE (C +gif)
(C +tat)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(BED were)
(NP-OB1 (D a) (N knyght)))))
(ID CMMANDEV,15.331))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(NP-OB2 (PRO +te+g+gm))
(VBD +g+afe)
(NP-OB1 (N ra+t)
(CP-QUE *ICH*-1))
(NP-TMP (D +tatt) (N nahht))
(LB |)
(LB |)
(PP (P +Turrh)
(NP (NP-POS (NPR Hali+g) (NPR\$ Gastess))
(N rune)))
(, ,)
(LB |)
(LB |)
(CP-QUE-1 (C +Giff)
(C +tatt)
(IP-SUB-2 (NP-SBJ (PRO te+g+g))
(MD sholldenn)
(IP-SUB-PRN=2 (CONJ o+terr)
(NEG nohht))
(LB |)
(LB |)
(VB wendenn)
(PP (P till)
(NP (NPR Herode))))))
(ID CMORM,I,258.2093))

```

### Indirect question subject in situ

Indirect questions used as a subject in situ are labelled CP-QUE-SBJ.
```
( (IP-MAT (CONJ but)
(CP-QUE-SBJ (WNP-1 (WPRO who))
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(NP-OB1 (PRO it))))
(BEP is)
(PP (P in)
(NP (N doute)))
(E_S .)) (ID CMCAPCHR,55.685))

```

### YES/NO questions with WHETHER

In some texts WHETHER is used to introduce main clause YES/NO questions. The subject and verb in these cases are occasionally inverted, but generally not. A C position is included in the non-inverted cases, and not in the inverted cases.
```( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VBD seyd)
(, ,)
(" ")
(CP-QUE-SPE (WQ Whe+tyr)
(IP-SUB-SPE (HVP haue)        <--- with inversion
(NP-SBJ (PRO I))
(VBN synned)
(PP (PP (P wyth)
(NP (NS wyfes)))
(CONJP (CONJ er)
(PP (P wyth)
(E_S ?)
(" "))
(ID CMKEMPE,27.579))

(NP-SBJ (NS disciplis))
(VBD seiden)
(, ,)
(CP-QUE-SPE (WQ Whether)      <--- no inversion
(C 0)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (Q ony) (N man))
(HVP hath)
(VBN brou+gt)
(NP-OB2 (PRO him))
(NP-OB1 (N mete)
(CP-EOP-SPE (WNP-1 0)
(IP-INF-SPE (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(TO to)
(VB ete))))))
(E_S ?))
(ID CMNTEST,IV,20.309))

```
In addition to main-clause WHETHER questions, there are two types of main-clause questions with uninverted order.

### Echo questions

```( (CP-QUE-SPE (" ")
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (N Suffisaunce) (CONJ and) (N power))
(BEP ben)
(PP (P of)
(NP (ONE o) (N kynde))))
(E_S ?)
(" ")) (ID CMBOETH,429.C1.22))

(NODE (CP-QUE-SPE (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (D This) (N thing))
(VBP sclaundrith)
(NP-OB1 (PRO +gou))))
(E_S ?)) (ID CMNTEST,VI,60.558))

```

### In the second conjunct of questions

Although these sometimes form a second question, but they often semantically do not form part of what is asked.
```( (CP-QUE-SPE (WADVP-1 (WADV Hou))
(MD moun)
(NP-SBJ (PRO +ge)
(CP-REL-SPE *ICH*-2))
(VB bileue)
(, ,)
(CP-REL-SPE-2 (WNP-3 0)
(C that)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ *T*-3)
(VBP resseyuen)
(NP-OB1 (N glorie))
(PP (P of)
(NP (OTHER othere)))))))
(, ,)
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO +ge))
(VBP seken)
(NEG not)
(NP-OB1 (D the) (N glorie)
(CP-REL-SPE (WNP-1 0)
(C that)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(BEP is)
(PP (P of)
(NP (NPR God)
(E_S ?))
(ID CMNTEST,V,40.445))

(NODE (CP-QUE-SPE (IP-SUB-SPE (BEP Art)
(NP-SBJ (PRO +tow))
(NP-OB1 (PRO he)
(CP-REL-SPE (WNP-1 0)
(C +tat)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(BEP is)
(IP-INF-SPE (IP-INF-SPE (TO to)
(VB comen))
(CODE </font>)
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(IP-INF-SPE (TO to)
(VB saue)
(NP-OB1 (N\$ manys) (N kynde)))))))
(, ,)
(CP-REL-SPE (WNP-2 0)
(C +tat)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (D +te) (N lawe))
(VBP speki+t)
(PP (P of)
(NP *T*-2)))))
)
(, ,)
(CODE <font>)
(CONJP (CONJ or)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
(VBP abyden)
(NP-OB1 (D+OTHER ano+tur)))))
(ID CMWYCSER,I,335.1940))

(C 0)
(MD moun)
(NP-SBJ (PRO +ge)
(CP-REL-SPE *ICH*-2))
(VB bileue)
(, ,)
(CP-REL-SPE-2 (WNP-3 0)
(C that)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ *T*-3)
(VBP resseyuen)
(NP-OB1 (N glorie))
(PP (P of)
(NP (OTHER othere)))))))
(, ,)
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO +ge))
(VBP seken)
(NEG not)
(NP-OB1 (D the) (N glorie)
(CP-REL-SPE (WNP-1 0)
(C that)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(BEP is)
(PP (P of)
(NP (NPR God)
aloone))))))))))
(E_S ?)) (ID CMNTEST,V,40.445))

(NP-SBJ (NPR Jhesus))
(PP (P to)
(NP (PRO hem)))
(, ,)
(CP-QUE-SPE (WQ Whether)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB-SPE (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO Y))
(VBP chees)
(NEG not)
(NP-OB1 (PRO +gou) (NUM twelue)))
(, ,)
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (ONE oon)
(PP (P of)
(NP (PRO +gou))))
(BEP is)
(NP-OB1 (D a) (N feend))))))
(E_S ?))
(ID CMNTEST,VI,60.573))

( (CP-QUE-SPE (WQ Whether)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB-SPE (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (NPR Moises))
(VBD +gaf)
(NEG not)
(PP (P to)
(NP (PRO +gou)))
(NP-OB1 (D a) (N lawe)))
(, ,)
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (Q noon)
(PP (P of)
(NP (PRO +gou))))
(DOP doith)
(NP-OB1 (D the) (N lawe)))))
(E_S ?))
(ID CMNTEST,VII,1.617))

```

### Exclamations (CP-EXL)

Exclamations are labelled CP-EXL. They have the same basic structure as questions and may be wh- or non-wh. As with questions, a (C 0) is included if there is no subject-verb inversion, and not if there is.
```( (CP-EXL-SPE (IP-SUB-SPE (VBD Wolde)
(NP-SBJ (NPR God))
(CP-THT-SPE (C 0)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(MD wolde)
(VB abyde)
(PP (P with)
(NP (PRO me))))))
(E_S !)
(' '))
(ID CMMALORY,59.1967))

(C 0)
(NP-SBJ (PRO\$ youre) (ADJ grete) (N doynge))
(BEP ys)
(VAN chonged)
(PP (P sytthyn)
(NP (D thys) (N day)
(PP (P in)
(NP (D the) (N morne))))))
(E_S !))
(' '))

( (CP-EXL (INTJ A)
(, ,)
(, ,)
(WNP-1 (WD what) (N sorwe))
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(VBD suffrede)
(E_S ,))
(ID CMAELR3,30.111))

```

### Relative Clauses (CP-REL)

Extraposed relative clauses
SE +TE relatives
THERE AS/THAT/THERE relatives
AS relatives
AS continuative relatives

Restrictive and non-restrictive relative clauses are not distinguished. Both types are contained within the brackets of their antecedent.

```(NODE (NP (D the) (ADJS byggest) (N castell)
(CP-REL (WNP-1 0)             <--- restrictive
(C that)
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(HVP hath))))
(ID CMMALORY,2.32))

(NODE (NP (D a) (N knyghte)
(CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
(C that)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(VBP hyghte)
(NP-OB1 (NPR syr) (NPR Jordanus)
(, ,)
(NP-PRN (D a) (N knyghte)
(PP (P of)
(NP (D the) (N\$ dukes))))))))
(ID CMMALORY,4.81))

(NODE (NP (D the) (N castel)
(PP (P of)
(NP (NPR Terrabyl)))
(, ,)
(CP-REL (WNP-1 (D the) (WPRO whiche)) <--- unrestrictive
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(NP-OB1 (Q many) (NS yssues)
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(NX (NS posternes)))
(RP oute)))))
(ID CMMALORY,3.36))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (D the) (N mayster) (N fyende)
(PP (P of)
(NP (N helle)))
(, ,)
(CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO which))
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(HVP hath)
(NP-OB1 (N pouste`))
(PP (P over)
(NP (Q all) (OTHER other) (NS devyllis))))))
(ID CMMALORY,670.4984))

```
Inside the relative clause, both the wh-constituent and the trace indicate the category of the gap, with additional functional information (in the form of an extended tag) appearing on the trace only.
```(NODE (NP (Q ony) (N man)
(CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
(C that)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)  <--- NP gap; function: subject
(MD woll)
(VB sey)
(ID CMMALORY,35.1136))

(NODE (NP (D the) (ADJS byggest) (N castell)
(CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
(C that)
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)  <--- NP gap; function: object 1
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(HVP hath))))
(ID CMMALORY,2.32))

(NODE (NP (D a) (N tyme)
(C 0)
(NP-SBJ (NPR kynge) (NPR Arthure))
(BED was)
(PP (P at)
(NP (NPR London))))))
(ID CMMALORY,45.1483))

(NODE (NP (D the) (N castell)
(PP (P of)
(NP (NPR Carbonek)))
(C 0)
(NP-SBJ (D the) (VAN Maymed) (N Kyng))
(BEP ys)
(VAG lyyng))))
(ID CMMALORY,659.4600))

```
The trace may also be inside a clause embedded under the relative.
```(NODE (NP (PRO\$ their) (NS shyldys)
(CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
(C that)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
(VBP know)
(CP-THT (C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(VBP hongys)
(PP (P on)
(NP (D yondir) (N tre))))))))
(ID CMMALORY,192.2859))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (D +ta) (NS men)
(CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
(C +te)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO hi))
(VBD wenden)
(CP-THT (C +dat)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(NP-OB1 (Q ani) (N god))
(HVD hefden)))))
(NP-PRN *ICH*-2))
(ID CMPETERB,55.430))

(NODE (NP-OB1 (NS myracles)
(CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
(C +tat)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VBD wolde)
(CP-THT (C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(BED weren)
(DAN done))))))
(ID CMWYCSER,364.2462))

(NODE (NP (D +te) (ADJ gode) (N angel)
(, ,)
(CP-REL (WNP-1 (WPRO whic))
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +tu))
(MD schalt)
(NEG not)
(VB doute)
(CP-THT (C +tat)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(BEP is)
(VAN iput)
(PP (P to)
(NP (PRO +te))))))))
(ID CMAELR3,29.79))

```
Generally the trace is made the first constituent in the IP simply for convenience. When the WH-word has been extracted from within a prepositional phrase or other constituent, however, the trace is put inside the constituent. The category of the trace is indicated as usual. See Section POSITION OF TRACES.

### Extraposed relative clauses

Extraposed relative clauses are co-indexed to a trace within the brackets of their antecedent.
```(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (Q every) (N man)
(CP-REL *ICH*-2))
(MD shold)
(VB assay)
(CP-REL-2 (WNP-3 0)
(C that)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-3)
(VBD wold)))
(IP-INF (FOR for) (TO to)
(VB wynne)
(NP-OB1 (D the) (N swerd))))
(ID CMMALORY,8.206))

(NODE (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-SBJ (NPR God))
(VBP gyff)
(NP-OB2 (PRO hym)
(CP-REL-SPE *ICH*-2))
(NP-OB1 (N joy))
(CP-REL-SPE-2 (WNP-1 0)
(C that)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(NP-OB1 (D this) (N spere))
(ID CMMALORY,201.3198))

```
In general, relative clauses are always either contained in or leave a trace in their antecedent. Relative clauses for which this is not the case, clause-adjoined relatives, are given a separate label CP-CAR. This class includes continuative relatives, where the relative clause refers back to the entire clause or to the VP, and relatives with a wh-modified nominal loosely associated with an NP in the clause. For details see Section CLAUSE-ADJOINED RELATIVES.

### SE +TE relatives

SE +TE relatives are difficult to categorize unambiguously. Since in Old English demonstrative pronouns were also used as relativizers (in place of wh-words), relatives headed by demonstratives are at least potentially ambiguous between a reading in which the demonstrative is the antecedent of a relative containing an empty operator, and a true free relative reading in which the demonstrative is the relativizer.
```(NP (D se)               <--- type (1)
(CP-REL (WNP 0)
(C +te)
(IP-SUB ...)))

(NP (CP-FRL (WNP (D se)) <--- type (2)
(C +te)
(IP-SUB ...)))

```
In Old English it is possible in most (although not all cases) to determine which of these two possibilities is instantiated (see Cynthia Allen, Topics in diachronic English syntax, New York: Garland, 1980) by the inflection on the demonstrative: in type (1) it reflects its role in the matrix clause, while in type (2) it reflects its role in the subordinate clause. This would be exceptionally difficult and time-consuming to apply as a criterion for distinguishing the cases in Middle English, and so we treat these as headed relatives in all cases (i.e., as type (1)), although this is (or may be) the wrong analysis in some cases. Note that SE is often replaced by +TE in Middle English texts.
```( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ and)
(NP-LFD (D se)
(CP-REL-SPE (WNP-1 0)
(C +de)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(NP-OB1 (NP (PRO +gew))
(CONJP *ICH*-2))
(VBP forsak+t)
(CONJP-2 (CONJ and)
(NP (PRO\$ +gewere) (N lare))))))
(, ,)
(NP-SBJ-RSP (PRO he))
(VBP forsak+t)
(NP-OB1 (PRO me) (N seluen))
(E_S .)
(' '))
(ID CMVICES1,45.496))

(NODE (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D se)
(CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
(C +de)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(NP-OB2 (PRO him))
(VB wissin)
(MD scolde))))
(, ,)
(DOP de+d)
(NP-OB1 (D +do) (ADJ ilke) (NS sennes)))
(ID CMVICES1,127.1568))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ for)
(NP-LFD (D +te)
(CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
(C +te)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(BEP bi+d)
(NP-SBJ-RSP (PRO he))
(NEG \$ne)
(VBP \$wur+d)
(CODE {TEXT:neme})
(E_S .))
(ID CMLAMBX1,107.991))

(NP-SBJ (D +te)
(CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
(C +te)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(VBP nicke+d)
(, .)
(MD Mei)
(BE beon)
(VAN ibore+gen))
(ID CMANCRIW,II.228.3299))

```
There are also a few cases in the early texts with an NP antecedent and a SE-+TE relative. They are bracketed as follows with the demonstrative in the specifier position:
```(NP (D the) (N man)
(CP-REL (WNP (D se))
(C +te/0)
(IP-SUB ...)))
```
When there is only one element between the antecendent and the IP, it is not always possible to tell whether it is in the wh-position or in C. Our rule in these cases is that a single +TE is always assumed to be in C (as is a single THAT), but other demonstratives (+TA, +TO, SE, etc.) are assumed to be in the wh-position.
```(NP (D the) (N man)
(CP-REL (WNP (D se))
(C 0)
(IP-SUB ...)))

(NP (D the) (N man)
(CP-REL (WNP 0)
(C +te)
(IP-SUB ...)))

```
```( (IP-MAT (PP (P Of)
(NP (D +tan)))
(NP-SBJ (PRO heo))
(HVD h+afde)
(NP-OB1 (D an) (OTHER o+dre) (N dohter)
(, ,)
(CP-REL (WNP-1 (D seo))
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(BED w+as)
(ALSO eac)
(VAN gen+amd)
(IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *-2)
(NP-OB1 (NPR maria)))
(PP (P +after)
(NP (D +t+are) (ADJR +arre) (N dohter)))))
(, ,)
(CP-REL (WNP-3 (D +tas))
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (MAN man))
(VBP cleope+d)
(IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *T*-3)
(NP-OB1 (NPR Maria) (NPR Cleophe))))))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMKENTHO,139.145))

( (IP-IMP (VBI Harke)
(NP-OB1 (D +de) (ADJ formeste) (N forbysne)
(CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
(C +de)
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(NP-OB2 (N+N mankenn))
(VBD sceawede)))
(CP-REL (WNP-2 (D +das))
(C +te)
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-2)
(NP-SBJ (PRO we))
(MD cunnen)
(VB understonden))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMVICES1,49.549))

( (IP-MAT (NP-LFD (D An) (ADJ lytel) (N synne)
(, ,)
(CP-REL (WNP-1 (D +tone))
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (MAN man))
(NP-OB2 (PRO heo))
(HVP h+af+d)
(DON gedon)
(, ,)
(PP (P beo)
(NP (PRO\$ his) (N gewittscipe))))))
(, ,)
(NP-SBJ-RSP (PRO heo))
(BEP is)
(NP-OB1 (QR mare)
(PP (P +tone)
(NP (Q eall) (NPR middeneard))))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMKENTHO,140.170))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
(NP-SBJ (D se)
(CP-REL (WNP-1 (D +te))
(C +tet)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(NEG ne)
(MD wolden)
(DO done))))
(VBD forgede)
(NP-OB1 (NP (PRO\$ his) (N circe))
(CONJP (CONJ &)
(NP (PRO\$ his) (N hus)))
(CONJP (CONJ &)
(NP (PRO\$ his) (N ham)))))
(ID CMPETERB,51.292))

```

### THERE AS/THAT/THERE relatives

Relatives headed by THERE are treated in the same way. THERE is treated as the antecedent unless another antecedent is present, in which case THERE is put in the wh-position and labelled WADVP. As with +TE relatives, if there is no antecedent and no complementizer present, THERE is assumed to fill the wh-position, and the structure is bracketed as a free relative clause, see Section THERE/THEN FREE RELATIVES.
```(NP (D the) (N place)
(C as/that/0)
(IP-SUB ...)))

(C as/that/0)
(IP-SUB ...)))

(C as/that)
(IP-SUB ...)))

(C 0)
(IP-SUB ...))

```
```( (IP-IMP (CONJ And)
(PP (P wit)
(NP (Q alle) (N reuerence)))
(VBI beklep)
(NP-OB1 (Q sum) (N party)
(PP (P of)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO\$ +ty) (ADJ +gunge) (N husbonde))
(VBP ly+t)
(PP (P in)
(E_S ,))
(ID CMAELR3,40.420))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D +te) (N munt)      <--- NP THERE
(PP (P of)
(NP (NPR caluarie)))
(C 0)
(NP-SBJ (PRO\$ ure) (NPR lauerd))
(VBD hongede))))
(, .)
(BED wes)
(NP-OB1 (D +te) (N kwalm) (N stouwe)  <--- NP THERE
(C 0)
(VBD lei+gen)
(NP-SBJ (NS licomes)
(RRC (VAN iroted)))
(PP (P buuen)
(NP (N eor+de))))
(CONJP (CONJ &)
(NP-SBJ *con*)
(VBD stunke)
(E_S .))
(ID CMANCRIW,II.84.1018))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO he)
(CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
(C +tet)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(HVP haue+d)
(NP-OB1 (D +tet) (N+N hors-hus)
(CP-EOP (WNP-2 0)
(IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-2)
(TO te)
(VB witene)))))))
(, ;)
(MD scal)
(, .)
(C 0)
(NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
(BEP is)
(, ;)
(VB makien)
(IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
(E_S .))
(ID CMLAMB1,85.212))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ *con*)
(VBD bare)
(NP-OB1 (PRO it))
(PP (P to)
(NP (NPR Vortiger)))
(C +tat)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VBD duellede))))
(E_S .))(ID CMBRUT3,48.1453))

(C as)
(NP-SBJ (D +tis) (N water))
(BEP is))))
(, .)
(NP-SBJ (D +te) (NPR feont))
(VBP fli+d)
(PP (P leoste)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(BEP beo)
(VAN (VAN21 for) (VAN22 schalded)))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMANCRIW,II.180.2535))

(NODE (IP-INF (TO to)
(BE be)
(C \$as)
(CODE {TEXT:thereas})
(NP-SBJ (D the) (NPR Sankgreall))
(BED was)))))
(ID CMMALORY,660.4639))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ (D +te) (N sonne) (N beem))
(VBD bare)
(NP-OB1 (PRO it))
(, ,)
(C 0)
(NP-SBJ (OTHER o+tere) (NS servauntes))
(VBD faillede))))
(E_S ;))
(ID CMPOLYCH,VI,181.1300))

```

### AS relatives

AS relatives have the same structure as other relatives clauses, except they always contain an empty operator rather than an overt wh-word and the complementizer is AS rather than THAT.
```x( (IP-MAT (CONJ ne)
(NP-SBJ *con*)
(VBD cowde)
(NP-PB1 (Q no) (N thing)
(CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
(C as)
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (N knyghthood))
(VBD axed))))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMBRUT3,48.1438))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ Outher)
(NP-SBJ (PRO it))
(BEP is)
(NP-OB1 (D+N th'estaat)
(PP (P of)
(NP (N innocence)))
(, ,)
(CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
(C as)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(BED was)
(NP-OB1 (D+N th'estaat)
(PP (P of)
(PP (P biforn)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VBD fil)
(PP (P into)
(NP (N synne)))))))))
(, ;)
(CP-CAR (WPP-2 (P in)
(WNP (WD which) (N estaat)))
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (PP *T*-2)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(BED was)
(VAN holden)
(IP-INF (TO to)
(VB wirche)
(PP (P as)
(PP (P in)
(NP (N heriynge) (CONJ and) (N adowrynge)
(PP (P of)
(NP (NPR God)))))))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMCTPARS,311.C1.981))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
(PP (P yf)
(IP-SUB (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO we))
(VBD dyfferre))
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *con*)
(MD wyll)
(NEG not)
(VB correcte)
(NP-OB1 (PRO\$ our) (N selfe))
(PP (P in)
(NP (D the) (N scole)
(PP (P of)
(NP (N mercy))))))))))
(, ,)
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(MD shall)
(NP-SBJ (PRO we))
(VB abyde)
(NP-OB1 (D the) (N swerde)
(PP (P of)
(NP (N correccyon)))
(PP (P of)
(NP (PRO\$ his) (N ryghtwysnesse)))
(, ,)
(CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
(C as)
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(PP (P by)
(NP (N experyence)))
(NP-SBJ (PRO we))
(MD maye)
(VB fele))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMINNOCE,9.138))

```

### AS continuative relatives

AS continuative relatives are like other continuative relatives, but have AS as the complementizer and an nominal empty operator. See Section CLAUSE ADJOINED RELATIVES.
```( (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (Q ani) (ADJ vnweote))
(NP-OB2 (PRO ou))
(CP-QUE (WPP-1 (P of)
(WNP (WD wat) (N ordre)))
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (PP *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO +ge))
(BEP beo+d)))
(, ,)
(PP (P ase)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-2)
(NP-SBJ (Q summe)
(CP-REL *ICH*-3))
(DOP do+d)
(, ,)
(IP-MAT-PRN (NP-SBJ (PRO +ge))
(VBP telle+d)
(NP-OB1 (PRO me)))
(, ,)
(CP-REL-3 (WNP-4 0)
(C +te)
(IP-SUB (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-4)
(VBP si+ge+d)
(NP-OB1 (D +te) (N gnete)))
(CONJP (CONJ ant)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-4)
(VBP swole+ge+d)
(NP-OB1 (D +te) (N fle+ge))))))))))
(ID CMANCRIW,I.46.67))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ (PRO it))
(VBP serveth)
(PP (P of)
(NP (Q many) (D a) (ADJ necessarie) (N conclusioun)
(PP (P in)
(NP (NS equacions)
(PP (P of)
(NP (NS thinges)))))))
(PP (P as)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(MD shal)
(BE be)
(VAN shewid))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMASTRO,669.C2.176))

```
For Infinitival Relatives, See Section INFINITIVAL RELATIVES.

### Reduced relatives

Reduced relatives ("wh+is" deletion) are labelled RRC with no operator or gap. The verb, if present, is a present or past participle. No other structure is indicated, except in the case of RRCs containing a small clause with a subject gap. In this case a placeholder for the subject (which in a full relative clause would contain the trace of the wh-word) is included in order to make clear the structure. They can be restrictive or non-restrictive but (almost) always follow the head immediately. Reduced relatives are not always easy to distinguish from adjunct participial constructions. Generally, a participial that follows a subject NP directly is treated as a reduced relative unless it clearly describes an action that takes place at the same time as that of the main verb. Participials following object NPs are always taken as reduced relatives except following verbs of perception where the participial describes an action taking place at the same time as that of the main verb. Participials in other positions are always taken as adjunct participials except when they can only be interpreted as restrictive on the subject. See Section ADJUNCT PARTICIPIAL CLAUSES.
```(NODE (NP (D the) (N castell)
(RRC (VAN called)
(IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *)  <--- small clause with subject placeholder
(NP-OB1 (NPR Camelot)))
(PP (P in)
(NP (D tho) (NS dayes)))))
(ID CMMALORY,45.1488))

(NODE (NP (D a) (N fygure)
(RRC (VAG stondynge)
(PP (P aboven)
(NP (PRO them)))
(PP (P with)
(NP (D a) (N swerde)
(RRC (VAN drawyn)
(PP (P in)
(NP (PRO\$ hys) (N honde))))))))
(ID CMMALORY,59.1953))

(RRC (VAG lyvynge)))
(ID CMMALORY,49.1623))

(NODE (NP (D +te) (N contre)      <--- non-verbal RRC
(, ,)
(ID CMBRUT3,226.4095))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ nethir)
(NP-SBJ (D the) (ADJ greet) (N flood)
(RRC (VAG distriynge)
(NP (Q al)
(NPR erthe))))
(MD schal)
(BE be)
(E_S .))
(ID CMOTEST,IX,1G.350))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(PP (P undir)
(NP (D a) (N cloth)))
(VBD stood)
(NP-SBJ (D an)
(N horse)
(VAN (VAN sadeled) (CONJ and) (VAN brydyled))))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMMALORY,37.1191))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ For)
(NP-SBJ (D a) (N candyll)
(RRC (VAG brennyng)))
(VBP bytokenyth)
(NP-OB1 (NP (PRO\$ oure) (NPR lady))
(, ,)
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(NP (NP (PRO\$ hor) (N sonne))
(, ,)
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(NP (D a) (N man)
(NP-PRN (PRO+N hymselfe)))))))
(E_S ;))
(ID CMMIRK,60.1636))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ for)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(BED was)
(NP-OB1 (D a) (ADJ good) (N man)
(RRC (VAN named)
(PP (P of)
(NP (PRO\$ his) (N body)))))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMMALORY,46.1527))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ for)
(BED was)
(RRC (VAG lyvynge)))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMMALORY,49.1623))

(NODE (IP-MAT-1 (CONJ And)
(, ,)
(NP-VOC (N suster))
(, ,)
(PP (P at)
(NP-SBJ (PRO +tu))
(MD mi+gt)
(VB \$vnderfonge)
(NP-OB1 (PRO\$ +tyn) (N husbounde)
(RRC (VAN i+gyue)
(PP (P of)
(ID CMAELR3,42.449))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ for)
(NP-SBJ (PRO they))
(BED were)
(NP-OB1 (NS messyngers)
(PP (P unto)
(NP (NPR kyng) (NPR Ban)
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(NX (NPR Bors)))))
(RRC (VAN isente)
(PP (P frome)
(NP (NPR kynge) (NPR Arthure)))))
(E_S .))(ID CMMALORY,15.459))

(NODE (NP-LFD (D a) (N schippe)
(RRC (VAN y-namyde)
(IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *)
(NP-OB1 (NPR Grace) (NPR de) (NPR Dyeu)))))
(ID CMGREGOR,185.1342))

(NODE (NP-SBJ (D+N Ameiden)
(RRC (VAN huchte)
(IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *)
(NP-OB1 (NPR dina)))))
(ID CMANCRIW,II.45.408))

(NODE (IP-PPL (VAG sitting)
(PP (P in)
(NP (D a) (N tunne)
(PP (P to)
(NP (D +te) (N sunne))))))))
(ID CMCAPCHR,41.292))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +tei))
(VBP make)
(PP (P in)
(NP (N coumfort)
(PP (P of)
(NP (NPR Richard)
(, ,)
(RRC
(NP-TMP (Q+N sumtyme))
(NP (N kyng))))))))
(ID CMCAPCHR,215.3858))

(NODE (IP-INF (NP-SBJ (PRO ou)
(NP-PRN (Q alle) (NUM +treo) (NS wimmen))
(RRC (NP-OB2 (PRO me))
(, .)
(VB hongen)
(, .)
(PP (P on)
(NP (D an) (N gibet)))
(IP-INF-PRP (FOR for)
(TO to)
(VB (VB21 wi+d) (VB22 buwe))
(NP-OB1 (N sunne))))
(ID CMANCRIW,II.92.1099))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ (NPR Ser) (NPR Robert) (NPR Morle`)
(RRC *ICH*-1))
(PP (P at)
(NP (N comaundment)
(PP (P of)
(NP (D +te) (N kyng)))))
(CODE )
(NP-OB1 (N keper)
(PP (P of)
(NP (D +te) (NPR Towre)))))
(CODE )
(VBD broute)
(NP-OB1 (D +tis) (N knyte)
(NP-PRN (NPR Oldcastell)))
(PP (P onto)
(NP (D +te) (N presens)
(PP (P of)
(NP (D +tese) (NS bischoppis)))))
(E_S .))(ID CMCAPCHR,240.3939))

(NODE (IP-SUB (PP *T*-2)
(NP-SBJ (D an) (N angel))
(, ,)
(IP-PPL (VAG entryngge)   <--- non-RRC post-subject ppple
(PP (P in-to)
(NP (N prysoun))))
(, ,)
(VBD turnede)
(NP-OB1 (N derknesse))
(PP (P in-to)
(NP (N li+gt))))
(ID CMAELR3,28.74))

```

This category includes both continuative relatives and relatives with a wh-modified nominal loosely associated with a previous NP in the clause. Some of the latter may in fact be matrix clauses with a preposed WH-phrase which functions as a topicalization, but we do not attempt to distinguish the two cases. Clause-adjoined relatives are IP constituents and not included in the brackets of any antecedent. Occasionally the previous NP associated with the clause-adjoined relative is separated from it by one or more clauses. In this case the clause-adjoined relative forms a token on its own. All WHEREFORE clauses are treated as clause-adjoined relatives.
```( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D +Tis) (N vertu)
(PP (P of)
(NP (N meknesse))))
(BEP is)
(NP-OB1 (D a) (ADJ sur) (N fundement)
(PP (P of)
(NP (Q alle) (N maner) (NS vertues))))
(, ,)
(CP-CAR (WPP-1 (P whit-oute)
(WNP (WD which) (N fundement)))
(C 0)
(, ,)
(IP-SUB (PP *T*-1)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-2)
(NP-SBJ (PRO +tu))
(MD wylt)
(VB reyse)
(RP vp))))
(, ,)
(NP-SBJ-RSP (PRO hit))
(VBP falle+t)
(RP doun)))
(E_S .))
(ID CMAELR3,32.181))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(BEP is)
(NP-SBJ-1 (PRO he))
(VAN clepid)
(IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *-1)
(NP-OB1 (FW solsticium)
(PP (P of)
(NP (N somer)))))
(, ;)
(CP-CAR (WNP-2 (WD which) (N declinacioun))
(C 0)
(, ,)
(IP-MAT (NP-SBJ *T*-2)
(PP (P after)
(NP (NPR Ptholome)))
(, ,)
(BEP is)
(NP-OB1 (NP (NUM 23) (NS degrees))
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(NP (NUM 50) (NS minutes))))
(PP *ICH*-3))
(PP (P in)
(NP (NPR Cancer)))
(PP-3 (P as)
(PP (P in)
(NP (NPR Capricorn))))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMASTRO,666.C2.107))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +tou))
(NP-OB1 (PRO hit))
(CODE )
(VBD onderuinge)
(PP (P ine)
(, /)
(PP (P be)
(NP (PRO\$ +tine) (N wytinde)))
(, /)
(CP-CAR (WNP-3 0)
(C +tet)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-3)
(BEP is)
(ID CMAYENBI,21.303))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ *con*)
(VBD gaff)
(NP-OB1 (PRO hym))
(NP-OB2 (NPR kynge) (NPR Lotte))
(, ,)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (PP *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VBD seyde)
(QTP (INTJ gramercy))))
(E_S .))(ID CMMALORY,21.663))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
(BED was)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VAN enterid)
(PP (P as)
(C 0)
(NP-SBJ *exp*)
(VBD longed)
(PP (P to)
(NP (D a) (N kyng))))))
(, ,)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (PP *T*-2)
(NP-SBJ
(NP (D the)
(N quene)
(, ,)
(NPR Igrayne)))
(CONJP *ICH*-3))
(, ,)
(N sorowe))
(CONJP-3 (CONJ and)
(NP (Q alle)
(D the)
(NS barons)))))
(E_S .))(ID CMMALORY,7.182))

```

### Free Relative Clauses (CP-FRL)

Wh- free relatives
Non-wh free relatives
THAT/+TE free relatives
THERE/THEN free relatives
AS free relatives
Verb fronting in free relative clauses
WHETHER free relatives

Free relative clauses are treated internally in the same way as embedded questions. A wh-operator and complementizer position are included in every case, of which one or the other or both may be filled. The wh-position may be filled by a wh-word or a th-word. Externally free relatives are bracketed by function, subjects, objects, complements of prepositions, etc.

### Wh- free relatives

```( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ and)
(NP-LFD (CP-FRL-SPE (WNP-1 (WPRO who))
(C that)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(VBP holdeth)
(PP (P ageynst)
(NP (PRO it))))))
(NP-SBJ (PRO we))
(MD wille)
(VB slee)
(NP-OB1-RSP (PRO hym))
(E_S .)
(' '))
(ID CMMALORY,11.306))

(NODE (IP-IMP-SPE (VBI Withdraw)
(C 0)
(NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
(VBP lyste)))))
(ID CMMALORY,29.912))

(NODE (IP-INF (TO to)
(VB rewarde)
(NP-OB1 (PRO\$ youre) (ADJ owne) (NS knyghtes))
(PP (P at)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (PP (P (CODE {at}))
(NP *T*-1))
(NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
(VBP lykith)
(NP-OB2 (PRO you))))))
(ID CMMALORY,29.924))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
(PP (P Be)
(NP (PRO\$ my) (N feyth)))
(, ,)
(' ')
(IP-MAT-PRN (VBD seyde)
(NP-SBJ (NPR Arthure)))
(, ,)
(' ')
(NP-SBJ (PRO I))
(MD woll)
(VB gyff)
(NP-OB2 (PRO you))
(NP-OB1 (CP-FRL-SPE (WNP-1 (WD what) (N gyffte))
(C that)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
(MD woll)
(E_S .)
(' '))
(ID CMMALORY,42.1380))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(DOD dide))))
(, ,)
(NP-SBJ-2 *exp*)
(NP-OB2 (PRO him))
(VBD thoughte)
(CP-THT-2 (C 0)
(IP-SUB (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VBD stood))
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *con*)
(BED was)
(VAN presented)
(PP (P afore)
(NP (D the) (ADJ dredful) (N doom)))))))
(E_S ;))
(ID CMAELR4,13.356))

(NODE (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-VOC (ADJ faire) (NS sires))
(, ,)
(NP-SBJ (PRO y))
(MD wil)
(VB go)
(PP (P wi+t)
(NP (PRO +tow)))
(C 0)
(NP-SBJ (PRO +ge))
(NP-OB1 (PRO me))
(VBP lede)))))
(ID CMBRUT3,217.3893))

```
A free relative may function as a prepositional phrase in its matrix clause and be governed by a preposition that is also required to govern the wh- phrase within the relative itself. The preposition doing such double duty is bracketed within the free relative, as in the following examples.
```(NODE (IP-SUB (PP *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO\$ my) (N lorde))
(MD woll)
(VB sle)
(NP-OB1 (PRO me))
(PP (CP-FRL (WPP-2 (P in)
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (PP *T*-2)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VBP fyndith)
(NP-OB1 (PRO me))))))
(ID CMMALORY,662.4701))

( (IP-IMP (PP (CP-FRL (WPP-1 (P In)
(WNP (WD what) (N dede) (ADV sam)))
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (PP *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
(BEP be))))
(, ,)
(VBI loke)
(CP-THT (C +tat)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NP (PRO\$ yure) (N +toht))
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(NP (PRO\$ +gure) (N herte))))
(BEP \$be)
(PP (P to)
(NP (NPR god)
(E_S .))
(ID CMBENRUL,14.486))

(NODE (IP-SUB (VBP cum+t)
(NP-SBJ (NP (Q sum) (N euel))
(CONJP (CONJ o+der)
(NP (Q sum) (N un+gelimp))))
(, ,)
(PP (CP-FRL (WPP-1 (P an)
(WNP (NP-COM (WD hwil-ches) (N\$ kennes))
(N wise)))
(C +de)
(IP-SUB (PP *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
(VBP cum+t)))))
(ID CMVICES1,29.317))

```

### THAT/+TE free relatives

Relatives headed by THAT or +TE alone are treated as free relatives with THAT/+TE as the complementizer. Again this may not be the right analysis in every case, but distinguishing this case from that in which THAT/+TE acts as a demonstrative antecedent is difficult or impossible and thus we have not attempted it. For SE +TE relatives, see Section SE +TE RELATIVES.
```( (IP-IMP (CONJ and)
(PP (P wit)
(NP (NP (ADJ depe) (NS si+g+gyngges))
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(VBI cacche)
(PP (P of)
(NP (PRO hym)))
(NP-OB1 (CP-FRL (WNP-1 0)
(C +tat)
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO +tu))
(VBP coueytest))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMAELR3,43.496))

( (IP-MAT (NP-LFD (CP-FRL (WNP-1 0)
(C +tt)
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (D +te) (N mu+d))
(NEG ne)
(MD mei)
(VB *)
(PP (P for)
(NP (N scheome))))))
(, .)
(NP-SBJ (D +te) (ADJ licht) (N ech+ge))
(VBP speke+d)
(NP-OB1-RSP (PRO hit)))
(ID CMANCRIW,II.49.459))

( (IP-IMP (CONJ &)
(VBI +tonke)
(NP-OB2 (CP-FRL (WNP-1 0)
(C +te)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(NP-OB1 (PRO hit))
(VBD sende)
(NP-OB2 (PRO +te)))))
(, .)
(PP (P +Tach)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NPR god))
(NEG ne)
(MD cunne)
(NP-OB2 (PRO him))
(VB +tonc)
(PP (P of)
(NP (PRO\$ his) (N sonde))))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMANCRIW,II.102.1244))

```

### THERE/THEN free relatives

Relatives headed by THERE/THEN alone are treated as free relatives with THERE/THEN filling the wh-position. If there is an antecedent, or if the complementizer position is filled (with +TE, THAT, or AS), these are treated as headed (by the antecedent or if not present by THERE); for headed THERE/THEN relatives, see Section THERE AS/THAT/THERE RELATIVES. THERE examples are far more common than THEN ones.
```( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO\$ +ti) (N shape))
(DOD dide)
(, .)
(NP-OB1 (NP (CP-FRL (WNP-1 0)
(C +tat)
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
(NEG ne)
(MD sholde)
(VB *))))
(, .)
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(C 0)
(NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
(NEG ne)
(MD sholde)
(VB *)))))
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(C 0)
(NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
(NEG ne)
(MD sholde)
(VB *))))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMTRINIT,67.910))

(C 0)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(BEN ibe)
(VAG (VAG blaberynge) (CONJ and) (VAG chaterynge)))))
(, ,)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VBD took)
(NP-OB1 (PRO hym))
(PP (P to)
(NP (N silence)))
(E_S .))
(ID CMAELR3,32.158))

```

### AS free relatives

AS clauses with a nominal gap that act as arguments of the matrix verb are treated as free relatives. There is a nominal empty operator and AS fills the complementizer position.
```( (IP-IMP-SPE (FP Only)
(DOI doo)
(NP-OB1 (CP-FRL-SPE (WNP-1 0)
(C as)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO I))
(VBP say)
(NP-OB2 (PRO +te)))))
(E_S :))
(ID CMAELR3,50.784))

( (IP-IMP (DOI do)
(NP-OB1 (CP-FRL (WNP-1 0)
(C as)
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (D the) (N prophete))
(VBP saith))))
(E_S :))
(ID CMAELR4,4.87))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ for)
(NP-SBJ (PRO ha))
(DOP do+d)
(NP-OB1 (WNP-1 0)
(C as)
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(DOD dude)
(IP-PPL (VAG honginde)
(PP (P on)
(NP (NPR rode))))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMANCRIW,II.176.2461))

```

### Verb fronting in free relative clauses

In adverbial free relatives of the type COME WHAT MAY, the fronted verb is before the wh-position. If the verb is not repeated within the clause, it is coindexed to a trace within the clause. If the verb is repeated, it is labelled as a left-dislocation (VBP-LFD) and the verb copy within the clause is labelled as resumptive (VBP-RSP). Externally these are labelled as NP-ADV.
```( (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-OB1 (D +tis))
(NP-SBJ (PRO we))
(VBP schawi+d)
(NP-OB2 (PRO +te))
(WNP-1 0)
(C +tt)
(IP-SUB-SPE (VB *ICH*-2)
(NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO tu))
(MD wult)
(E_S .))
(ID CMKATHE,34.237))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ for)
(NP-SBJ (D +tt))
(VBP stont)
(WNP-1 0)
(C +tt)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(VBP-RSP falle))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMJULIA,124.520))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ for)
(NP-SBJ (PRO ich))
(BEP am)
(PP (P wi+d)
(NP (PRO +te)))
(, .)
(WNP-1 0)
(C +tt)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (MAN me))
(DOP-RSP do)
(NP-OB2 (PRO +te)))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMKATHE,42.376))

```

### WHETHER free relatives

WHETHER is often used in free relatives in its original meaning WHICH OF TWO, in which case it is tagged WPRO and dominated by WNP. For WHETHER questions, see Section WHETHER QUESTIONS.
```( (IP-IMP (NP-ADV (CP-FRL (WNP-1 (WPRO hwe+der) (ADV se))  <--- whichever of two
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(DOP de+d))))
(, ;)
(VBI scarne+d)
(NP-OB1 (PRO him))
(E_S .))
(ID CMANCRIW,II.182.2568))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(NP-OB2 (CP-FRL (WNP-1 (WPRO hwa+der) <--- whichever of you two
(NP-COM (PRO\$ +gunker)))
(C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(NP-OB1 (PRO hes))
(VBP tobrec+d))))
(, :)
(NP-SBJ (LATIN (FW justicia) (FW dei)))
(MD scall)
(P of))
(DO don)
(NP-OB1 (N riht))
(E_S .))
(ID CMVICES1,95.1131))

```
SE-+TE relatives without a noun antecedent are treated as relatives headed by a demonstrative pronoun, although some may in fact be free relatives with a demonstrative relativer. This applies to relatives headed by THERE as well. See Section SE +TE RELATIVES.

### It-cleft (CP-CLF)

It-clefts have the same internal structure as relative clauses, Section RELATIVE CLAUSES.
```(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
(BEP beo+d)
(NP-OB1 (NS deoflen))
(CP-CLF (WNP-2 0)
(C +tt)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-2)
(PP (P in)
(NP (PRO ham)))
(VBP dearie+de))))
(ID CMKATHE,27.136))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ for)
(NP-SBJ (PRO it))
(BED was)
(NP-OB1 (PRO I)
(NP-PRN (PRO\$+N myself)))
(CP-CLF-SPE (WNP-1 0)
(C that)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(VBD cam)
(PP (P in)
(NP (D the)
(N lykenesse)))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,5.131))

```

### Tough-movement Complement (CP-TMC)

Tough-movement complements (SALLY IS EASY TO PLEASE) are labelled CP-TMC and always contain an empty operator coindexed to a trace. The subject is not coindexed to the wh-operator or trace as the relationship between the two is predictable. Generally, tough-movement complements are complements to adjectives. Certain nouns, however, notably ones meaning PITY or DIFFICULT THING may also take tough-movement complements.
```(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D+ADJ thilke) (N love))
(BEP is)
(CP-TMC (WNP-1 0)
(IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(TO to)
(VB parfourne)))))
(ID CMCTPARS,304.C2.683))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and) (ALSO eek)
(NP-SBJ (D the) (N wounde))
(MD wolde)
(BE be)
(CP-TMC (WNP-1 0)
(IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(FOR for) (TO to)
(VB heele))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMCTPARS,324.C1.1554))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
(NP-SBJ *con*)
(BEP is)
(PP (P a+gein)
(NP (D +te) (N wind))))
(CONJP (CONJ &)
(CP-TMC (WNP-1 0)
(IP-INF (TO to)
(VB seon)
(PP (P +turch)
(NP *T*-1))))))))
(ID CMANCRIW,II.41.364))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D This) (N thoghte))
(BEP es)
(CP-TMC *ICH*-2))
(NP-TMP (Q+N sumtyme))
(CP-TMC-2 (WNP-1 0)
(IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(FOR for) (TO to)
(HV hafe)))
(E_S .))
(ID CMROLLTR,37.773))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(BEP is)
(NP-OB1 (Q muche) (N pine)        <--- NOUN
(CP-TMC (WNP-2 0)
(IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-2)
(FOR for) (TO to)
(VB halden)))))
(ID CMANCRIW,II.41.360))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ Ant)
(PP (P +tah)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO\$ hare) (N mei+dhad))
(BEP beo)
(, .)
(NP-SBJ (PRO\$ +tin))
(BEP is)
(NP-OB1 (D +te) (QR mare) (N streng+de)
(CP-TMC (WNP-1 0)
(IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(TO to)
(VB halden))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMHALI,136.115))

( (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
(BED was)
(NP-OB1 (N rewth)
(CP-TMC (WNP-1 0)
(IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(TO to)
(VB here)))))
(ID CMMIRK,100.2724))

```
Clauses of the type SHE IS FAIR TO LOOK ON, are also treated as tough-movement, although in fact their structure must be somewhat different, since in SHE IS FAIR TO LOOK ON, SHE is FAIR, but in JOHN IS EASY TO PLEASE, JOHN is not EASY.
```(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO she))
(BED was)
(CP-TMC (WNP-1 0)
(C 0)
(IP-INF (PP (P oppon)
(NP *T*-1))
(TO to)
(VB see)))))
(ID CMBRUT3,114.3453))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ Ac)
(CP-TMC *ICH*-2))
(N +ting))
(NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
(BED were)
(CP-TMC-2 (WNP-1 0)
(IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(TO to)
(VB zigge)))
(E_S .))
(ID CMAYENBI,44.735))

```

### Infinitival Clauses (IP-INF)

Infinitival complements
Infinitival complements of verbs
Infinitival complements of nouns
Extraposed infinitives
Infinitival subjects
In situ
Extraposed infinitival subjects
Wh- infinitives
Infinitival questions
Infinitival relatives
Infinitival free relatives
Infinitival relatives without introductory WH-words
Extraction out of an infinitive
Degree infinitives without a gap
Purpose infinitives without a gap
Infinitives with ECM verbs

Infinitives occur as the complements of verbs, nouns and adjectives. In line with our general practice, when the infinitive clause is an argument of a verb, there is no bracketing to indicate its combination with the governing predicate. The same is true when the infinitive is complement of a complex predicate (see Section NP-OB1+CLAUSE IN COMPLEX PREDICATES). When it is a complement to a noun or an adjective, however, it is bracketed with the governing word. The subject of an infinitive, which is generally PRO, is not indicated except in ECM environments (see Section INFINITIVES WITH ECM VERBS). For absolute infinitives, see ABSOLUTE CLAUSES

### Infinitival complements of verbs

```( (IP-MAT (ADVP-TMP (ADV Thenne))
(BED was)
(NP-SBJ (PRO she))
(VAN abasshed)
(IP-INF (TO to)
(VB yeve)
(NP-OB1 (N ansuer)))
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,5.122))

(NP-SBJ (NPR sir) (NPR Ector))
(VBD assayed)
(IP-INF (TO to)
(VB pulle)
(RP oute)
(NP-OB1 (D the) (N swerd))))
(ID CMMALORY,9.257))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ For)
(NP-SBJ (Q many) (D a) (N man))
(VBP wenyth)
(IP-INF-SPE (TO to)
(VB put)
(NP-OB1 (PRO\$ hys) (N enemy))
(PP (P to)
(NP (D a) (N rebuke))))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMMALORY,51.1693))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +tei))
(BED weren)
(VAN warnede)
(IP-INF (TO to)
(VB amenden)
(NP-OB1 (PRO hem))
(PP (P of)
(NP (PRO\$ here) (N lyf)))))
(ID CMWYCSER,225.46))

```

### Infinitival complements of nouns

```( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(NP-OB2 (NPR kynge) (NPR Arthure))
(NP-OB1 (N licence)
(IP-INF (IP-INF (TO to)
(VB ryde)
(PP (P afftir)
(NP (NPR Balyne))))
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(IP-INF (TO to)
(VB revenge)
(NP-OB1 (D the) (N despite)
(CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
(C that)
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(DON done))))))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,50.1653))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
(HVP have)
(IP-INF (TO to)
(BE be)
(VAN slayne)
(, ,)
(PP (P as)
(C 0)
(BED was)
(PP (P thorow)
(NP (N outerageousnes)))
(VAN slayne)))))))
(ID CMMALORY,658.4553))

```

```( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (NPR Marie))
(NEG ne)
(VBD ran)
(NEG not)
(, ,)
(IP-INF (TO to)
(VB vnderfonge)
(NP-OB1 (NS gystes))))
(E_S ;))
(ID CMAELR3,36.308))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NPR Balyn))
(BED was)
(IP-INF (TO to)
(VB departe))))
(ID CMMALORY,49.1609))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
(, ,)
(' ')
(IP-MAT-PRN (VBD seyde)
(NP-SBJ (D the) (N damesell)))
(, ,)
(' ')
(NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
(BEP ar)
(NEG nat)
(IP-INF-SPE (TO to)
(VB kepe)
(NP-OB1 (D the) (N swerde))
(PP (P fro)
(NP (PRO me)))))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMMALORY,47.1558))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ (PRO I))
(MD wolde)
(HV have)
(BEN bene)
(PP (P as)
(NP (Q ony) (N knyght)
(CP-REL-SPE (WNP-1 0)
(C that)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(VBP lyvith)))))
(IP-INF-SPE (FOR for)
(TO to)
(VB sle)
(E_S .)
(' '))
(ID CMMALORY,51.1701))

```

### Extraposed infinitives

Extraposed infinitival clauses are coindexed to a trace as usual.
```( (IP-IMP (NP-VOC (N Suster))
(, ,)
(BEI be)
(IP-INF *ICH*-1))
(PP (P wit)
(NP (Q al) (PRO\$ +tyn) (N herte)))
(IP-INF-1 (TO to)
(BE be)
(PP (P at)
(NP (D +tis) (N feste))))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMAELR3,44.542))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ and)
(IP-INF-SPE *ICH*-1))
(NP-SBJ (PRO I))
(BED were)
(IP-INF-SPE-1 (TO to)
(VB sle)
(NP-OB1 (PRO the)))
(E_S .)
(' '))
(ID CMMALORY,200.3149))

```

### Infinitival subjects

Infinitives also act as subjects, either in situ or extraposed.

### In situ

Infinitive subject clauses in situ are labelled IP-INF-SBJ.
```( (IP-MAT (IP-INF-SBJ (VB Makie)
(NP-OB1 (NPR\$ deofles) (N hore))
(PP (P of)
(NP (PRO hire))))
(, :)
(BEP is)
(NP-OB1 (N reu+de)
(PP (P ouer)
(NP (N reu+de))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMANCRIW,II.215.3096))

( (IP-MAT (IP-INF-SBJ (TO to)
(VB love)
(NP-OB1 (NPR God)))
(BEP is)
(IP-INF (IP-INF (FOR for) (TO to)
(VB love)
(NP-OB1 (CP-FRL (WNP-1 0)
(C that)
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VBP loveth)))))
(, ,)
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(IP-INF (FOR *) (TO *)
(VB hate)
(NP-OB1 (CP-FRL (WNP-2 0)
(C that)
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-2)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VBP hateth)))))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMCTPARS,296.C1a.332))

(IP-INF-SBJ (FOR for) (TO to)
(VB persevere)
(PP (P in)
(NP (N synne))))
(BEP is)
(NP-OB1 (N werk)
(PP (P of)
(NP (D the) (NPR devel)))))
(ID CMCTMELI,226.C1.345))

(, ,)
(IP-INF-SBJ (NP-SBJ (D a) (N man))
(TO to)
(VB pride)
(NP-RFL (PRO hym))
(PP (P in)
(NP (D the) (NS goodes)
(PP (P of)
(NP (N grace))))))
(BEP is)
(ALSO eek)
(NP-OB1 (D an) (ADJ outrageous) (N folie))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMCTPARS,302.C2.567))

```

### Extraposed infinitival subjects

When an infinitival subject is extraposed, it is co-indexed to an overt IT or an empty expletive subject (NP-SBJ *exp*).
```(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO hit))
(VBP lye)
(PP (P in)
(NP (PRO\$ my) (N power)))
(IP-INF-1 (TO to)
(VB gyff)
(NP-OB1 (PRO hit))))
(ID CMMALORY,48.1600))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO hit))
(MD woll)
(BE be)
(IP-INF-1 (TO to)
(VB macche)
(NP-OB1 (PRO hym))))
(ID CMMALORY,201.3181))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO hit))
(BED was)
(NP-OB1 (N mervayle))
(IP-INF-1 (TO to)
(VB se)))
(ID CMMALORY,661.4670))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (PP (P hwenne)
(IP-SUB-SPE (IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO +tu))
(HVP hauest)
(VBN iwaked))
(CONJP (CONJ &)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ *con*)
(MD schuldest)
(VB gan)
(TO+VB toslepen))))))
(, .)
(NP-SBJ-1 *exp*)
(BEP is)
(IP-MAT-PRN (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VBP sei+d))
(IP-INF-SPE-1 (VB wakien)))
(ID CMANCRIW,II.197.2821))

```
The same notation is used when the verb is impersonal.
```(NODE (IP-MAT-SPE (NP-VOC (N Sir))
(, ,)
(NP-SBJ-1 (PRO hit))
(VBP nedith)
(NEG nat)
(NP-OB2 (PRO you))
(IP-INF-SPE-1 (TO to)
(VB put)
(NP-OB1 (PRO me))
(PP (P to)
(NP (QP (Q no) (QR more))
(N payne)))))
(ID CMMALORY,47.1541))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ-1 *exp*)
(NP-OB2 (PRO hym))
(VBD semed)
(IP-INF-1 (TO to)
(BE be)
(PP (P of)
(NP (D the) (N ayge)
(PP (P of)
(NP (NUMP (NUM three) (NUM hondred))
(NS wynter))))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,660.4629))

```

### Wh- infinitives

There are three types of infinitives with introductory WH-words/phrases: infinitival questions, infinitival relative clauses, and infinitival free relatives. Internally these three clause types have the same structure, with the WH-word co-indexed to its trace in the usual way. Externally, WH-questions are treated as verbal complements, infinitival relatives are contained within the NP brackets of their antecedent (like tensed relative clauses, Section RELATIVE CLAUSES), and infinitival headless relatives are contained within NP brackets with no preceding antecedent (like tensed free relative clauses, Section FREE RELATIVES).

### Infinitival questions

```(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO i))
(NEG+VBP noot)
(CP-QUE (WNP-1 (WPRO what))
(IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(TO to)
(DO doone))))
(ID CMCTMELI,218.C1.45))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(NEG+VBD nyst)
(TO to)
(VB wende))))
(ID CMBRUT3,50.1485))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D this) (N ensample)
(PP (P of)
(NP (NPR saturne))))
(VBP techith)
(TO to)
(VB maken)
(PP (P in)
(NP (D the) (N label)))
(NP-OB1 (Q alle) (D the) (NS semydiametres)
(PP (P of)
(NP (NS Epicicles)
(PP (P of)
(NP (Q alle) (D the) (NS planetis))))))))
(E_S /))
(ID CMEQUATO,26.117))

```

### Infinitival relatives

See Section INFINITIVAL RELATIVES WITHOUT INTRODUCTORY WH-WORDS for infinitival relatives with no WH-.
```( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ *con*)
(VBD saide)
(CP-THT (C 0)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(NP-OB1 (QP (Q no) (QR more))
(N lande)
(IP-INF (PP *T*-1)
(NP-OB1 (PRO her))
(FOR+TO forto)
(VB marie))))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMBRUT3,17.516))

```

### Infinitival free relatives

```( (IP-MAT (CONJ for)
(NP-SBJ (PRO +tey))
(MD wolde)
(CODE )
(HV haue)
(NP-OB1 (CP-FRL (WNP-1 (WPRO what))
(IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(FOR+TO for-to)
(VB +gyue))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMAELR3,39.379))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ And)
(NP-VOC (NPR lhord))
(NP-SBJ (PRO ich))
(NEG ne)
(HVP habbe)
(C 0)
(IP-INF-SPE (PP *T*-1)
(VB maki)
(NP-OB2 (PRO +te))
(NP-OB1 (N yeldinge)))))
(E_S :))
(ID CMAYENBI,115.2222))

```

### Infinitival relatives without introductory WH-words (CP-EOP)

Infinitival relatives without introductory WH-words are often difficult or impossible to distinguish from purpose clauses, and we have not attempted to distinguish the two. Purpose/relative infinitive clauses are labelled CP-EOP (EOP = empty operator) and are contained within the brackets of their potential antecedent. Like other relatives they contain an empty operator co-indexed to a trace. The trace bears the index of the word in the matrix clause which is antecedent to the gap in the infinitive. Both subject and object gap relatives are indicated. For purpose infinitives without a gap, see Section PURPOSE INFINITIVES WITHOUT A GAP.
```(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(NP-OB1 (Q no) (N man)
(CP-EOP (WNP-1 0)
(IP-INF (NP-OB2 *T*-1)
(TO to)
(VB teche)))))
(ID CMPOLYCH,VI,225.1611))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D the) (N purveaunce))
(BEP is)
(NP-OB1 (D an)
(N forme)
(PP (P of)
(NP (NS thinges)))
(CP-EOP (WNP-2 0)
(IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-2)
(TO to)
(DO doone)))))
(ID CMBOETH,451.C2.476))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ For)
(PP (P yif)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO thou))
(VBP conferme)
(NP-OB1 (PRO\$ thi) (N corage))
(PP (P to)
(NP (D the) (ADJS beste) (NS thinges))))))
(, ,)
(NP-SBJ (PRO thow))
(NEG ne)
(HVP hast)
(NP-OB1 (Q noon) (N nede)
(PP (P of)
(NP (Q no) (N juge)))
(CP-EOP-SPE (WNP-1 0)
(IP-INF-SPE (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(TO to)
(VB yeven)
(NP-OB1 (D the) (N prys)
(CONJP (CONJ or)
(NX (N mede)))))))
(E_S ;))
(ID CMBOETH,448.C2.409))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (D the) (ADJS outreste) (N bark))
(BEP is)
(VAN put)
(PP (P ayens)
(NP (D the) (N distemperaunce)
(PP (P of)
(NP (D the) (NPR hevene)))))
(PP (P as)
(NP (D a) (N deffendour)
(CP-EOP (WNP-4 0)
(IP-INF (NP-SBJ *T*-4)
(TO to)
(VB suffren)
(NP-OB1 (N harm)))))))
(ID CMBOETH,435.C2.291))

( (IP-IMP (CONJ &)
(VBI underfeng)
(NP-OB1 (PRO hit)
(CP-EOP *ICH*-2))
(, .)
(CP-EOP-2 (WNP-1 0)
(IP-INF (FOR for)
(TO to)
(VB aquike)
(NP-OB1 (PRO +te))
(PP (P wi+d)
(NP *T*-1))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMANCRIW,II.102.1243))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ but)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(MD wolde)
(VB legge)
(NP-OB1 (NPR Champayn)
(CP-EOP *ICH*-2))
(PP (P to)
(NP (D +te) (N kyng)))
(CP-EOP-2 (WNP-1 0)
(IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(TO to)
(VB wedde)))
(E_S .))
(ID CMPOLYCH,VIII,111.3725))

```

### Extraction out of an infinitive

A-movement (passivization) out of an infinitive is indicated, as usual, with an (XP *) trace coindexed to the moved element (cf. passivization out of small clauses); see Section EMPTY CATEGORIES and SMALL CLAUSES.
```( (IP-MAT (PP (P +Gif)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO it))
(BEP is)
(PP (PP (P of)
(NP (NPR gode)))
(CONJP (CONJ o+der)
(PP (P of)
(NP (NS +tinges)
(CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
(C +de)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(PP (P to)
(NP (PRO +de)))
(VBP belimpe+d))))))))))
(, ,)
(NP-SBJ-2 (PRO he))
(BEP is)
(IP-INF (IP-INF (NP-OB1 *-2)
(TO to)
(VB luui+gen))
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(IP-INF (NP-OB1 *-2)
(TO to)
(VB wi+dhealden))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMVICES1,101.1206))

(NP-SBJ-1 (D +te) (ADJ Gay) (N world))
(BEP is)
(IP-INF (NP-OB1 *-1)
(TO to)
(VB fleon)))
(ID CMANCRIW,II.127.1649))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ ach)
(NP-SBJ-1 (D +tt))
(NEG+BEP nis)
(NEG naut)
(IP-INF (NP-OB1 *-1)
(TO to)
(VB seggen))
(E_S .))
(ID CMANCRIW,II.141.1901))

```
A-bar movement (topicalization/scrambling/etc.) of an infinitive is also treated in the usual way. The moved element in the matrix clause is co-indexed to a trace in the lower clause. In the case of moved NPs, the label of the constituent in the matrix clause is only NP, since it does not have a function within this clause. The trace in the infinitive, however, indicates the function of the constituent in that clause.
```( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D+NPR +Tefeont))
(NP-1 (PRO hit))
(VBD Makede)
(IP-INF (NP-OB1 *ICH*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO Me))
(DO don))
(E_S .))
(ID CMANCRIW,II.224.3245))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ ach)
(NP-1 (D +tis) (N lont))
(NP-SBJ (PRO\$ ure) (NPR lauerd))
(VBD bihat)
(IP-INF (NP-OB1 *ICH*-1)
(TO+VB tobiteachen)
(PP (P in)
(NP (NPR\$ judas) (NS honden))))
(, .)
(PP (P for) (WPRO hwon)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VBP ga)
(ID CMANCRIW,II.221.3210))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ &)
(NP-1 (PRO me))
(NP-SBJ (PRO +tu))
(VBP makest)
(IP-INF-SPE (NP-SBJ *ICH*-1)
(TO to)
(VB steoruen))
(PP (P wi+d)
(NP (D +te) (N streng+de)
(PP (P of)
(NP (PRO\$ +tine) (NS beoden)
(, .)
(CP-REL-SPE (WNP-2 0)
(C +te)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ *T*-2)
(BEP beo+d)
(E_S .))
(ID CMMARGA,74.301))

```

### Degree infinitives without a gap

Degree infinitives without a gap are labelled IP-INF-DEG. They occur with the degree words SO, TOO, and ENOUGH. For degree infinitives with a gap, see Section DEGREE INFINITIVES WITH A GAP.
```( (IP-MAT-SPE (PP (P For)
(NP (N payne)
(PP (P of)
(NP (N deth)))))
(, ,)
(NP-SBJ (PRO we)
(QP (Q all)))
(MD shall)
(HV have)
(NP-OB1 (N worke)
(IP-INF-DEG-SPE (TO to)
(VB macche)
(NP-OB1 (D that) (N knyght))))
(E_S ;))
(ID CMMALORY,199.3119))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(NEG+BED nass)
(NEG nohht)
(LB |)
(LB |)
(TO to)
(VB sekenn)
(LB |)
(LB |)
(NP-OB1 (D +Te) (NPR Laferrd)
(NP-PRN (NPR Crist)))
(PP (P biforr)
(NP (D +te) (N follc)))
(, ,)
(LB |)
(LB |)
(IP-INF-PRP (TO To)
(VB (VB lofenn)
(CONJP *ICH*-2))
(NP-OB1 (PRO himm))
(CONJP-2 (CONJ &)
(VB wurr+tenn))))))
(ID CMORM,II,230.2451))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (NPR Crist))
(BEP is)
(IP-INF-DEG (TO to)
(VB for+gyue)
(NP-OB2 (D a) (ADJ synful) (N man))
(NP-OB1 (PRO\$ his) (NS synnes)))))
(ID CMAELR3,43.513))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (Q no) (N man))
(BED was)
(IP-INF-DEG (FOR+TO for-to)
(VB nempne)
(NP-OB1 (NPR God)))))
(ID CMBRUT3,45.1370))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ for)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(BEP ys)
(IP-INF-DEG-SPE (TO to)
(VB fyght)
(PP (P with)
(NP (NPR Jamys) (NPR Fyscher)
(NP-PRN (D the) (ADJ trewe) (N man))))
(PP (P whythe)
(NP (NP-POS (D an) (N yryn) (N\$ rammys))
(N horne)))))
(E_S .)
(" "))
(ID CMGREGOR,201.1652))

```

### Purpose infinitives without a gap

Purpose infinitives without a gap are labelled IP-INF-PRP.
```( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
(NP-TMP (D that) (N nyghte))
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VBD yssued)
(PP (RP oute)
(P of)
(NP (D the) (N castel)))
(PP (P at)
(NP (D a) (N posterne)))
(IP-INF-PRP (FOR for) (TO to)
(HV have)
(VBN distressid)
(NP-OB1 (NP-POS (D the) (N\$ kynges))
(N hooste)))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMMALORY,4.89))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
(NP-SBJ (Q all) (D this))
(BED was)
(VAN ordeyned)
(IP-INF-PRP (FOR for) (TO to)
(VB kepe)
(NP-OB1 (NP (D the) (NS lordes))
(CONJP *ICH*-1))
(CONJP-1 (CONJ and)
(NP (D the) (NS comyns))))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMMALORY,8.208))

```
For purpose infinitives with a gap, see Section INFINITIVAL RELATIVES WITHOUT INTRODUCTORY WH-WORDS.

### Infinitives with ECM verbs

Only verbs on the following list are treated as exceptional case-marking (ECM) verbs: LET, GAR, MAKE, DO, HEAR, SEE, HELP, HAVE, HOT(AN), BID. These are the verbs which allow an arbitrary PRO subject with the active infinitive where Modern English would use a passive infinitive. Infinitive clauses after an ECM verb always have a subject indicated. The arbitrary PRO subject with an active infinitive is indicated by (NP-SBJ *arb*) (subjects gapped under conjunction and `pro' subjects are indicated by (NP-SBJ *con*) and (NP-SBJ *pro*) in the usual way; see EMPTY SUBJECTS). Note that DO is treated as causative rather than periphrastic except when a causative reading is impossible.
```( (IP-MAT (ALSO Also)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(DOD dud)
(IP-INF (NP-SBJ *arb*)
(VB wryte)
(NP-OB1 (Q all) (D the) (NS batayles)
(CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
(C that)
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (Q every) (ADJ worthy) (N knyght)
(PP *ICH*-2))
(DOD ded)
(PP-2 (P of)
(NP (NPR\$ Arthurs) (N courte)))))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,29.935))

(NP-SBJ (NPR Seynt) (NPR Andraw))
(IP-INF (NP-SBJ *arb*)
(TO to)
(VB gedyr)
(NP-OB1 (PRO hom))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMMIRK,8.197))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (D This) (NPR Kyng) (NPR Pandras))
(VBD herde)
(IP-INF (NP-SBJ *arb*)
(VB speke)
(PP (P of)
(NP (NP (PRO\$ his) (N goodnesse))
(CONJP (CONJ &)
(NP (PRO\$ his) (NS condicions))))))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMBRUT3,6.137))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
(NP-SBJ *con*)
(VBD het)
(IP-INF (NP-SBJ *arb*)
(VB bringin)
(NP-OB1 (PRO hire))
(PP (P biforen)
(NP (PRO him))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMMARGA,58.56))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ *con*)
(VBP lette)
(IP-INF (NP-SBJ *arb*)
(VB calle)
(IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
(NP-OB1 (NPR Hubbeslaw))))
(E_S ;))
(ID CMBRUT3,109.3314))

( (IP-MAT (PP (P Efter)
(NP (D +tt)))
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VBD wende)
(IP-INF (FOR+TO forte)
(HV habben)
(IP-INF (NP-SBJ *arb*)
(DO idon)
(NP-OB1 (Q al)
(CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
(C +tt)
(IP-SUB (NP-OB1 *T*-1)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VBD wilnede))))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMJULIA,98.41))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ &)
(NP-SBJ (PRO +ge))
(MD schule)
(VB seon)
(IP-INF (NP-SBJ *arb*)
(VB buncin)
(NP-OB1 (PRO him))
(PP (P wi+d)
(NP (NP-POS (D +teose) (NPR\$ deosles))
(NS betles)))
(, .)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (N wa)
(NP-COM *ICH*-1))
(BEP bi+d)
(NP-OB1 (PRO him))
(NP-COM-1 (PRO\$ hise) (N\$ liues))))))
(ID CMANCRIW,II.142.1915))

```
Although these verbs overwhelmingly take a bare infinitive complement, there are scattered examples with TO infinitive complements for most of them.
```( (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (Q nane)
(PP (P of)
(NP (D +teos))))
(NEG ne)
(VBP makie)
(IP-INF (NP-SBJ *arb*)
(TO to)
(VB forwurden)
(, .)
(NP-OB1 (N weole))
(C ase)
(NP-SBJ (Q muchel))
(BEP is))))))
(ID CMHALI,150.319))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ-1 (N Pine))
(BEP is)
(DAN idon)
(IP-INF (NP-OB1 *-1)
(NP-SBJ *arb*)
(TO to)
(VB (VB21 vnder) (VB22 stonden))
(PP (P +turch)
(NP (N cros))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMANCRIW,II.41.361))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ *con*)
(VBD lete)
(IP-INF (NP-SBJ *arb*)
(NP-OB1 (PRO ham))
(TO to)
(VB norisshe))
(E_S ;))
(ID CMBRUT3,49.1472))

```
All other verbs are treated as control verbs whenever the subject of the complement clause can be interpreted as controlling the action or state designated by the complement predicate. Roughly speaking, a controlling subject is an agent. When the subject cannot be so interpreted, e.g., when it is inanimate or the subject of a passive verb clearly under the control of some other agent, the governing verb is treated as an ECM verb. This rule undoubtedly misclassifies some cases but has the virtue of being applicable in an objective way. Users interested in distinction between control and ECM will, of course, have to examine all potential instances for themselves. We have made one exception to our rule. The verbs JUDGE, CONDEMN, DEME are always treated as control predicates. Their negative force seems to require this analysis.
```( (IP-MAT (CONJ but)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VBD commanded)
(IP-INF (NP-SBJ (PRO hem))
(TO to)
(BE bene)
(VAN seruede))
(E_S .))
(ID CMBRUT3,82.2486))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
(PP (P for)
(NP (D +tis) (N erroure)))
(NP-SBJ (NPR God))
(VBD suffered)
(IP-INF (NP-SBJ (PRO him))
(FOR for) (TO to)
(BE be)
(VAN (VAN take) (CONJ and) (VAN led))
(PP (P into)
(NP (NPR Babilonie))))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMCAPCHR,37.175))

( (IP-SUB (PP *T*-4)
(NP-SBJ (PRO +tei))
(VBD chose)
(IP-INF (NP-SBJ (D +te) (N prince))
(FOR for)
(TO to)
(BE be)
(NP-OB1 (N kyng))))
(ID CMCAPCHR,153.3594))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
(NP-TMP (D that) (N yere))
(NP-SBJ (D the) (N kynge))
(VBD ordaynyde)
(IP-INF (NP-SBJ (D the) (N Parlyrnent))
(TO to)
(BE be)
(VAN holde)
(PP (P at)
(NP (NPR Caumbryge))))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMGREGOR,179.1204))

(NP-SBJ (NPR godd))
(VBD scheop)
(IP-INF (NP-SBJ (SUCH swuch) (N +ting))
(TO to)
(BE beonne)))
(ID CMHALI,133.77))

( (IP-MAT (NP-SBJ (PRO He))
(, ,)
(IP-PPL (VAG desyryng)
(IP-INF (NP-SBJ (D +te) (N werk)
(PP (P of)
(NP (NPR God))))
(TO to)
(BE be)
(VAN magnyfyed)))
(, ,)
(VBD gat)
(NP-OB2 (PRO hym))
(NP-OB1 (D +te) (ADJ same) (N ston)
(CP-REL (WNP-1 0)
(C +tat)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ *T*-1)
(VBD fel)
(PP (P up-on)
(NP (PRO\$ hir) (N bakke)))))))
(ID CMKEMPE,22.462))

(NP-SBJ *con*)
(VBD thretyd)
(IP-INF (NP-SBJ (PRO hir))
(TO to)
(BE be)
(VAN brent)))
(ID CMKEMPE,33.731))

( (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO it))
(VBD happyd)
(IP-INF-1 (IP-INF (NP-SBJ (PRO hir))
(TO to)
(BE be)
(VAN herberwyd)
(PP (P in)
(NP (NP-POS (D a) (ADJ good) (N\$ mannys))
(N hows))))
(, ,)
(CONJP (CONJ &)
(IP-INF (NP-SBJ (Q many) (NS neyborwys))
(TO *)
(VB comyn)
(RP in)
(IP-INF-PRP (TO to)
(VB cheryn)
(NP-OB1 (PRO hir))
(PP (P for)
(NP (NP (PRO\$ hir) (N perfeccyon))
(CONJP (CONJ &)
(NP (PRO\$ hir) (N holynes))))))))))
(ID CMKEMPE,78.1765))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ for)
(NP-SBJ (PRO sche))
(VBD desyred)
(PP (P in)
(PP (P as)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO sche))
(MD durst)
(VB *))))))
(IP-INF (NP-SBJ (Q alle) (NS men))
(TO to)
(BE be)
(VAN sauyd))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMKEMPE,144.3340))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
(PP (P whan)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO they))
(VBD com)
(PP (P to)
(NP (NPR Benwyke))))))
(NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
(VBD fortuned)
(IP-INF (NP-SBJ (Q both) (D the) (NS kynges)
(NP-PRN *ICH*-1))
(BE be)
(, ,)
(NP-PRN-1 (NPR Ban) (CONJ and) (NPR Bors)))
(E_S .))(ID CMMALORY,16.476))

( (IP-MAT (LB |)
(CONJ Forr)
(NP-SBJ-1 *exp*)
(VBP birr+t)
(IP-INF-1 (NP-SBJ (N rihhtwisnesse))
(BE ben)
(LB |)
(LB |)
(PP (P +Turrh)
(NP (N mildheorrtnesse)))
(VAN temmpredd))
(LB |)
(CODE )
(LB |)
(PP (P Swa)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO itt))
(ADJP (NP-MSR (Q summ) (N del))
(CP-TMC *ICH*-2))
(BEP be)
(LB |)
(LB |)
(CP-TMC-2 (WNP-3 0)
(IP-INF (IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-3)
(TO To)
(VB +tolenn))
(CONJP (CONJ &)
(IP-INF (NP-OB1 *T*-3)
(TO to)
(VB dre+ghenn))))))))
(E_S ;)
(LB |))
(ID CMORM,I,99.854))

( (IP-MAT (ALSO Also)
(NP-SBJ (NS men)
(PP (P of)
(NP (NPR Gabaon))))
(VBD feyneden)
(IP-INF (NP-SBJ (PRO hem))
(TO to)
(BE be)
(PP (P of)
(E_S ,))
(ID CMPURVEY,I,9.302))

```

### Small Clauses (IP-SMC)

The small clause label is used for verbless constituents containing an internal predication, either a subject and an predicate nominal object, or a subject and a predicate adjective or past participle.
```( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ *con*)
(IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO hym))
(IP-INF (TO to)
(VB departe))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,48.1587))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VBD saw)
(IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (D thes) (NUM two) (NS bodyes))
(ID CMMALORY,53.1774))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
(NP-SBJ (PRO He))
(VBP wenyth)
(IP-SMC-SPE (NP-SBJ (Q no) (N knyght))
(PP (P as)
(NP (PRO he)))))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMMALORY,199.3099))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
(CONJ but)
(PP (P with)
(NP (N falshede)))
(NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
(MD wolde)
(HV have)
(IP-SMC-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO me))
(VAN slayne)
(PP (P with)
(NP (N treson))))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMMALORY,206.3395))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ *con*)
(VBD founde)
(IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO hit))
(VAN coverde)
(PP (P with)
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,666.4822))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (CONJ For)
(NP-SBJ (Q som) (NS men))
(VBD called)
(IP-SMC-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO me))
(NP-TMP (Q+N somtyme))
(NP-OB1 (D the) (N Quene)
(PP (P of)
(NP (D the) (NPR Wast) (NPR Landis)))))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMMALORY,658.4557))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-1 (PRO hit))
(MD myghte)
(NP-OB2 (D the) (N kynge))
(IP-INF-1 (TO to)
(VB make)
(IP-SMC (NP-SBJ (PRO her))
(NP-OB1 (PRO\$ his) (N quene)))))
(ID CMMALORY,4.108))

```
Although passive traces are not generally indicated, in a passive on the subject of a small clause, the passivized subject is co-indexed to its position in the small clause.
```( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ-1 (D the)
(N duke))
(BED was)
(VAN called)
(IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *-1)
(NP-OB1 (D the)
(N duke)
(PP (P of)
(NP (NPR Tyntagil)))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,2.7))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ-1 (NPR syr)
(NPR Kay))
(BED was)
(IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *-1)
(NP-OB1 (N knyght)))
(PP (P at)
(NP (NPR Alhalowmas)
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,8.213))

(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ-1 (Q ony))
(MD sholde)
(BE be)
(VAN accompted)
(IP-SMC (NP-SBJ *-1)
(CONJP (CONJ or)
(PP (P of)
(NP (N prouesse))))))))
(ID CMMALORY,50.1652))

```

### Adjunct Participial Clauses and Verbal Gerunds (IP-PPL, IP-PPL-SBJ)

Adjunct participial clauses are labelled IP-PPL. A few clear cases of gerunds in subject position are labelled with IP-PPL-SBJ. Some of the non-subect cases may also be gerunds but we have not attempted to distinguish them. Adjunct participials and gerunds have a PRO subject (not indicated in our system) usually coreferential with the matrix subject. Adjunct participial clauses are not always easily distinguished from reduced relatives; see Section REDUCED RELATIVES. For participial constructions with overt subjects, see Section ABSOLUTE CLAUSES.
```( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VBD wente)
(PP (P into)
(NP (D the) (N watir)))
(IP-PPL (IP-PPL (VAG cryynge))
(CODE <em>)
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(IP-PPL (VAG rorynge)))
(CODE </em>)
(CONJP (CONJ and)
(IP-PPL (VAG makying)
(E_S ,))
(ID CMMALORY,664.4752))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ (D the) (N lyon))
(VBD wente)
(NP (PRO hym)))
(IP-PPL (VAG fawnynge)
(PP (P as)
(NP (D a) (N spaynell))))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMMALORY,664.4776))

```
Participial adjuncts as complements of prepositions.
```(NODE (IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO ha))
(NP-OB1 (PRO ham))
(PP (P wi+d)
(IP-PPL (NP-OB1 (PRO me))
(VAG wecchinde)))
(VBP werien))
(ID CMMARGA,80.398))

( (IP-SUB (PP *ICH*-2)
(NP-SBJ (PRO ye))
(MD shall)
(VB com)
(PP (P unto)
(NP (PRO me)))
(PP (P withoute)
(IP-PPL (VAG makynge)
(NP-OB1 (QP (Q ony) (QR more))
(N debate)))))
(ID CMMALORY,37.1184))

( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
(PP (P As)
(IP-PPL-SPE (VAG towchyng)
(PP (P unto)
(NP (D that)))))
(, ,)
(' ')
(IP-MAT-PRN (VBD seyde)
(NP-SBJ (NPR sir) (NPR Launcelot)))
(, ,)
(' ')
(NP-SBJ (PRO I))
(VBP know)
(CP-THT-SPE (C 0)
(IP-SUB-SPE (NP-SBJ (PRO I))
(BED was)
(NP-OB1 (Q none)
(PP (P of)
(E_S .)
(' '))
(ID CMMALORY,633.3724))

```
Subject gerund clause
```( (IP-MAT (IP-PPL-SBJ (VAG Swerynge)
(PP (P withoute)
(NP (N avysement))))
(BEP is)
(ALSO eek)
(NP-OB1 (D a) (N Synne))
(E_S .)) (ID CMCTPARS,307.C2.819))

```
Reduced relative ("wh+is" deletion) cases are labeled as relative clauses (see Section REDUCED RELATIVES).

### Absolute Clauses (IP-ABS, IP-INF-ABS)

This is something of a catch-all category. It includes translations of Latin ablative absolutes, and other constructions with a subject different from that of the matrix clause and a verb in participial or infinitival form. When the verb of the absolute clause is a present participle, the structure of the clause is similar to that of the adjunct participial clauses (Section ADJUNCT PARTICIPIAL CLAUSES discussed above, except that the latter have an empty subject (not indicated in our annotation) coreferent with the subject of the matrix clause. Absolutes with the verb in the infinitive are labelled IP-INF-ABS; all others are labelled IP-ABS.
1. Translation of Latin ablative absolute
```( (IP-MAT (IP-ABS (NP-SBJ (PRO +te))
(VAG openand)
(NP-OB1 (PRO\$ +tyn) (N honde)))
(, ,)
(NP-SBJ (Q alle) (NS +tynges))
(MD shul)
(BE be)
(VAN fulfild)
(PP (P of)
(NP (N godenes)))
(E_S .))
(ID CMEARLPS,126.5520))

```
2. Past participle
```( (IP-MAT (IP-ABS (NP-SBJ (D This))
(VAN (VAN sworne) (CONJ and) (VAN ratified))
(PP (P be)
(NP (NS seles))))
(, ,)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(VBD went)
(PP (P into)
(NP (D +te) (N ylde)
(PP (P of)
(NP (NPR Crete)))))
(E_S ,))
(ID CMCAPCHR,35.110))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
(NP-SBJ (PRO she))
(VBD flowe)
(PP (P unto)
(NP (D the) (N elme)))
(IP-INF-PRP (TO to)
(VB take)
(NP-OB1 (PRO\$ hir) (N perche)))
(, ,)
(IP-ABS (NP-SBJ (D the) (NS lunes))
(VAN overcast)
(NP (D a) (N bowghe))))
(E_S ;))
(ID CMMALORY,205.3342))

```
3. Present participle

The subject can be nominative, accusative, or genitive

```( (IP-MAT (ADVP-TMP (ADV Than))
(VBD departed)
(NP-SBJ (NPR sir)
(NPR Percivale))
(PP (P frome)
(NP (PRO\$ hys) (N awnte)))
(, ,)
(IP-ABS (NP-SBJ (Q aythir))
(VAG makyng)
(E_S .))
(ID CMMALORY,659.4602))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
(NP-SBJ (D +te) (N duke)
(PP (P of)
(NP (NPR Lancastir))))
(VBD londid)
(PP (P at)
(NP (NPR Rauenesporne)))
(, ,)
(P be)
(NP (NPR Grymisby)))
(, ,)
(PP (P in)
(NP (D +te) (N translacion)
(PP (P of)
(NP (NPR Seynt) (NPR Martyn)))))
(, ,)
(IP-ABS (NP-SBJ (Q no) (N man))
(VAG makyng)
(NP-OB1 (N resistens)))
(E_S .))
(ID CMCAPCHR,212.3794))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
(NP-SBJ (Q alle) (D the) (NS byschoppys))
(VBD seseden)
(PP (P with)
(NP (D a) (N swerde)))
(, ,)
(IP-ABS (IP-ABS (NP-SBJ (PRO they)
(QP (Q alle)))
(VAG syttynge)
(NP-OB1 (PRO\$ there) (NS hondys))
(, ,)
(CONJP (CONJ ande)
(IP-ABS (NP-SBJ (Q alle) (PRO they)) <--- nom. subj.
(VAG saynge)
(NP-OB1 (D thes) (NS wordys)
(LATIN *ICH*-1))
(PP (P to)
(NP (PRO hym)))
(, ,)
(FW tuo) (FW super)
(FW femur) (FW tuum)
(FW potentissime)))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMGREGOR,166.910))

( (IP-SUB (IP-ABS (NP-SBJ (PRO +te))    <--- acc. subj.
(VAG spekinde))
(, /)
(NP-MSR (QP (ADV wel) (QR more)))
(NP-SBJ (PRO we))
(BEP by)
(ID CMAYENBI,266.2605))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ And)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(BED was)
(PP (P of)
(IP-ABS (NP-SBJ (PRO\$ hir))  <--- gen. subj.
(VAG comyng)
(NP-DIR (N hom))))))
(ID CMKEMPE,37.832))

```
This type can also be the complement of a preposition.
```( (IP-MAT (CONJ and)
(NP-SBJ (PRO he))
(BED was)
(VAN chosen)
(PP (P be)
(IP-ABS (NP-SBJ (D a) (ADJ wite) (N dowe))
(VAG lityng)
(PP (P on)
(NP (PRO\$ his) (N hed)))))
(E_S .))
(ID CMCAPCHR,56.740))

( (IP-MAT (CONJ Ne)
(CODE )
(NP-SBJ (N preier))
(MD may)
(NEG not)
(BE be)
(VAN getyn)
(PP (P in)
(NP (NS bigynners) (CONJ &) (NS profiters)))
(PP (P wi+toutyn)
(IP-ABS (NP-SBJ (N +tinkyng))
(VAG comyng)
(E_S .))
(ID CMCLOUD,72.254))

```
4. Absolute infinitives These are often but not always interpretable as X IS TO V with deontic modal meaning. The subject is always nominative when it is possible to tell.
```( (IP-MAT-SPE (' ')
(NP-SBJ (D That)
(IP-ABS-PRN *ICH*-1))
(BED were)
(NP-OB1 (N shame))
(PP (P unto)
(NP (PRO the)))
(, ,)
(' ')
(IP-MAT-PRN (VBD seyde)
(NP-SBJ (NPR sir) (NPR Launcelot)))
(, ,)
(' ')
(IP-INF-ABS-PRN-SPE-1 (NP-SBJ (PRO thou)
(NP-PRN (D an) (VAN armed) (N knyght)))
(TO to)
(VB sle)
(NP-OB1 (D a) (ADJ nakyd) (N man))
(PP (P by)
(NP (N treson))))
(E_S .)
(' '))
(ID CMMALORY,206.3372))

( (IP-INF-ABS (CONJ And)
(PP (P if)
(NP-SBJ=1 (PRO it))
(MD may)
(BE be)
(VAN knowe)
(CP-THT-1 (C +tat)
(IP-SUB (NP-SBJ (PRO +tei))
(VBP make)
(PP (P in)
(NP (N coumfort)
(PP (P of)
(NP (NPR Richard)
(, ,)
(RRC (NP-TMP (Q|N sumtyme))
(NP (N kyng))))))))))))
(, ,)
(NP-SBJ (PRO +tei))
(TO to)
(BE be)
(VAN punchid)
(PP (P as)
(NP (NS tretoures)))
(E_S .))
(ID CMCAPCHR,215.3862))

```